ABSTRACT Tribological behaviour of aluminium alloy (Al-Si10Mg) reinforced with alumina (9%) and
graphite (3%) fabricated by stir casting process was investigated. The wear and frictional
properties of the hybrid metal matrix composites was studied by performing dry sliding wear
test using a pin-on-disc wear tester. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of
experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L27 Orthogonal array was selected for analysis of the data. Investigation to find the influence of applied load, sliding speed and
sliding distance on wear rate, as well as the coefficient of friction during wearing process
was carried out using ANOVA and regression equations for each response were developed.
Objective of the model was chosen as ‘smaller the better’ characteristics to analyse the dry
sliding wear resistance. Results show that sliding distance has the highest influence followed
by load and sliding speed. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the
experimental results and Scanning Electron Microscopic studies were done on the wear
Cite this paper
N. Radhika, R. Subramanian and S. Prasat, "Tribological Behaviour of Aluminium/Alumina/Graphite Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Using Taguchi’s Techniques," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 5, 2011, pp. 427-443. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.105032.
 Sharma, S.C., Girish, B.M., Kamath, R. and Satish, B.M.,1999, “Fractography,
fluidity, and tensile properties of aluminum/hematite particulate composites”, Journal of
Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol.8, No. 3, pp.309-314.
Seah, K.H.W., Sharma, S.C., Rao, P.R and B. M. Girish, B.M, 1995, “Mechanical
properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27/silicon carbide particulate composites”,
J.Materials and Design,Vol.16, Issue 5, pp.277-281.
Shanta Sastry, Krishna, M. and Jayagopal Uchil, 2001, “A study on damping behaviour
of aluminite particulate reinforced ZA-27 alloy metal matrix composites”, J. of Alloys
and Compounds, Vol.314, Issue1-2, pp.268-274.
Natarajan, N., Vijayarangan, S., Rajendran, I., 2007, “ Fabrication,testing and thermal
analysis of metal matrix composite brake drum”, Internal journal of Vehicle Design,
Vol.44, No-3-4, pp.339-359.
Prasad. S.V., Asthana, R., 2004, “Aluminium-metal matrix composites for automotive
applications: tribological considerations”, Tribology, vol.17, No.3, pp.445-453.
Jasmi Hashim, 2001, “The production of cast Metal matrix composite by a modified stir
casting method”, Journal Technology, 35 (A), pp.9-20.
Jayaseelan, V., Kalaichelvan, K., Kannan, M., Vijay Ananth, S., 2010, “Extrusion
characterizes of Al/Sic by different manufacturing process”, Internal journal of Applied
engineering research,Vol.1, No.2, pp.194-199.
T. Miyajima and Y. Iwai, Effects of reinforcements on sliding wear behaviour of
aluminium matrix composites, Wear, 255(1-6), 2003, p 606-616.
Manoj Singla, D. Deepak Dwivedi, Lakhvir Singh, Vikas Chawla, 2009, “Development
of Aluminium Based Silicon Carbide Particulate Metal Matrix Composite”, Journal of
Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 8, No.6, pp 455-467.
Mandal.D., Dutta.B.K, Panigrahi.S.C, 2004, “Wear and friction behaviour of stir cast
aluminium-base short steel fiber reinforced composites”, Wear, Vol.257, Issue 7-8,
Gonzalez, C., Martin, A., Llorca, J., Garrido, M.A., Gomez, M.T., Rico, A., Rodriguez,
J, 2005, “Numerical analysis of pin on disc tests on Al-Li/SiC composites”, J. Wear,
Song, J.I. and Han, K.S, 1997, “Effect of volume fraction of carbon fibers on wear
behaviour of Al/Al2O3/C hybrid metal matrix composites”, composite structures, Vol.39, Issues 3-4, pp.309-318.
Dolata Grosz. A., Wieczorek, J, 2007, “Tribological properties of hybrid composites
containing two carbide phases”, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering,
Vol.28, Issue.3, pp.149-155.
Mahendra, K.V., Radhakrishna, K, 2010, “Characterization of Stir Cast Al—Cu—(fly
ash + SiC) Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 44
Issue No. 8, pp. 989-1005.
Basavarajappa, S. Chandra Mohan, G. Mukund, K. Ashwin, M and Prabu, M, 2006,
“Dry sliding wear behaviour of Al 2219/SiC/Gr hybrid metal matrix composites”.J.Materials Engineering and performance, Vol.15, Issue.6, pp.668-674.
Basavarajappa, S., G. Chandramohan, 2005, “Wear Studies on Metal Matrix
Composites: a Taguchi Approach”, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol.21, No.6, pp. 845-
Taguchi.G and Konishi, S., 1987, “Taguchi methods, orthogonal arrays and linear
graphs, tools for quality engineering”, Dearborn, MI: American supplier Institute, pp.
Chauhan, S.R., Anoop Kumar, Singh. I., Prashant Kumar, 2010, “Effect of fly ash
content on friction and dry sliding wear behaviour of glass fiber reinforced polymer
composites-A Taguchi approach”, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization
and engineering”, Vol.9, No.4, pp.365-387.
Rohatgi, P. K. Ray, S. Liu, Y. 1992, “Tribological properties of metal matrix-graphite
particle composites”, International Materials Reviews, Volume 37, 1992, pp. 129-152.
Mares, M., 2001, “Some issues on tailoring possibilities for mechanical properties of
particulate reinforced metal matrix composites”, Journal of Optoelectronics and
Advanced Materials, vol.3, No.1, pp.119-124.
Adel Mohammed Hassan and Mohammed T. Hayajneh, 2002, “The effect of the
increase in Graphitic volumetric percentage on the strength and hardness of Al-4 weight
percentage Mg-graphite composites”, J. materials Engineering and performance,
Vol.11, pp. 250-255.
Chaudhury, S.K., Singh, A.K, Sivaramakrishnan, C.S.S., Panigrahi, S.C., 2004,
“Preparation and thermo mechanical properties of stir cast Al–2Mg–11TiO2 (rutile) composite”, Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 517–521.
Balasivanandha Prabu, S., Karunamoorthy, L., Kathiresan, S and Mohan, B., 2006,
“Influence of stirring speed and stirring time on distribution of particles in cast metal
matrix composite”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.171, Issue 2,
Amro M.Al-Qutub, Ibrahim M.Allam and M.A.Abdul Samad, 2008, “Wear and friction
of Al-Al2 03 composites at various sliding speeds”, J. material science, 43, pp 5797-5803.
Alphas, A.T and Zhang, J., 1992, “Effect of SiC particulate reinforcement on the dry
sliding wear of aluminium-silicon alloys (A356)”, wear, Vol.155, pp.83-104.
Deuis, R.L, Subramanian and Yellup (1997), “Dry sliding wear of aluminium
composites-a review”, J. Composite Science and Technology, Vol.57, pp.415-435.
Sudarshan and Surappa, M.K. (2008), “Dry sliding wear of fly ash particle reinforced
A356 Al composites”, Wear, Vol.265, pp.349-360.
Sahin, Y., 2003, “Wear behaviour of aluminium alloy and its composites reinforced by
SiC particles using statistical analysis”, J. Material Design, V0l.24, pp.95-103.
Banerji, A., Prasad, S.Y., Surappa, M.K., and Rohatgi, P.K., 1982, “Abrasive wears of
cast aluminium alloy-zircon particle composites”, wear, 82, pp. 141-151.
Mahmoud, T.S, 2008, “Tribological behaviour of A390/Grpmetal–matrix composites fabricated using a combination of rheocasting and squeeze casting techniques”, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 222(2), pp. 257-265.