JMMCE  Vol.10 No.2 , February 2011
Acidulation and Regeneration of Bamboo Derived Sorbents for Gas Phase Adsorption of Elemental Mercury
ABSTRACT
This paper presents results that illustrate the recycling of a bamboo derived sorbent used for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg0). The bamboo derived sorbent used is essentially a HCl functionalized activated carbon prepared from carbonization and CO2 activation of raw bamboo, that could potentially provide an alternative way to existing methods in removing mercury from flue gases from coal-fired plants. In this study, the bamboo derived sorbents were tested in a batch test using a mercury permeation tube as the source and nitrogen as a carrier gas. The recycling or regeneration of an activated carbon is an important issue to address from a coal-fired power plant point of view, and an attempt has been made to test the behavior of bamboo derived sorbents with various treatments including carbonized, carbonized-activated, carbonized-activated-acidulated, and then a follow-up recycled run after sample treatments in gas phase. From the study, it was found that bamboo derived activated carbon can be successfully acidulated using various normalities of HCl where weak solutions can be very effective in functionalizing the surface of the sorbent and capturing mercury. In order to recycle and reuse bamboo derived sorbents, stronger normalities of HCl would be desired.

Cite this paper
N. Siddiqui and J. Don, "Acidulation and Regeneration of Bamboo Derived Sorbents for Gas Phase Adsorption of Elemental Mercury," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 2, 2011, pp. 111-126. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.102008.
References
[1]   EPA Mercury Home, online: http://epa.gov/mercury/ [August 5th 2010]

[2]   Jones, A., Hoffman, J., Smith, D., Feeley III, T., and Murphy. J., 2007, “DOE/NETL’s Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program: Preliminary Economic Analysis of Activated Carbon Injection.” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, Issue 4, pp. 1365-1371.

[3]   His, H., Chen, S., Rostam-Abadi, M., Rood, M., Richardson, C., Carey, T., and Chang, R., 1998, “Preparation and Evaluation of Coal-Derived Activated Carbons for Removal of Mercury Vapor from Simulated Coal Combustion Flue Gases”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 12, Issue 6, pp. 1061-1070

[4]   Bustard, J., Durham, M., Starnes, T., Lindsey, C., Martin, C., Schlager, R., and Baldrey K, 2004, “Full-Scale evaluation of sorbent injection for mercury control on coal-fired power plants”, Fuel Proces. Technol. Vol. 85, Issue 6-7, pp. 549-562

[5]   Li, Z., Sun, X., Luo, J., Hwang J., and Crittenden J., 2002, “Unburned Carbon from Fly Ash for Mercury Adsorption: II. Adsorption Isotherms and Mechanisms”, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 79-96

[6]   Luo, J., Hein, A., and Hwang, J., 2004 “Adsorption of Vapor Phase Mercury on Various Carbons”, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 13-22

[7]   Hameed, B., Din, A., and Ahmad, A., 2007, “Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboobased activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 141, Issue 3, pp. 819-825

[8]   Wu, F., Tseng, R., and Juang, R., 1999, “Preparation of activated carbons from bamboo and their adsorption abilities for dyes and phenols”, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Vol. A34, Issue 9, pp. 1753-1775.

[9]   Granite, E., Pennline, H., Hargis, R., 2000, “Novel Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Flue Gas”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp. 1020-1029.

[10]   Mui, E., Cheung, W., Lee, V., and McKay, G., 2008, “Kinetic Study on Bamboo Pyrolysis”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 47, Issue 15, pp. 5710-5722 .

[11]   Scurlock, J., Dayton, D., and Hames, B., 2000, “Bamboo: an overlooked biomass resource”, Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 229- 244.

[12]   Asada, T., Ishihara, S., Yamane, T., Toba, A., Yamada, A., Oikawa, K., 2002, “Science of Bamboo Charcoal : Study on Carbonizing Temperature of Bamboo Charcoal and Removal Capability of Harmful Gases”, Journal of Health Science, Vol. 48, Issue 6, pp. 473-479.

[13]   Ghorishi, S., Keeney, R., Serre, S., and Gullett, B., 2002, “Development of a Cl-Impregnated Activated Carbon for Entrained-Flow Capture of Elemental Mercury”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 36, Issue 20, pp. 4454-4459.

[14]   Ghorishi, S. B.; Gullett, B. K., 1997, “Fixed-bed control of mercury; role of acid gases and a comparison between carbon-based, calcium-based, and coal fly ash sorbents”, Presented at the 1st EPRI-DOE/EPA Combined Utility Air Pollutant Control Symposium, Washington, DC.

[15]   Qu, Z., Yan, N., Liu, P., Chi, Y., and Jia, J., 2009, “Bromine Chloride as an Oxidant to Improve Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas”, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 43, Issue 22, pp. 8610-8615.

[16]   Luo, J., Hwang, J., Greenlung, B., Sun, X., and Xu, Z., 2004, “Adsorption of Hg0 on the Unburned Carbon with HF Acid Leaching”, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 41-51

[17]   Liu, W., Vidic R., and Brown, T., 2000, “Impact of flue conditions on Mercury uptake by Sulfur-Impregnated Activated Carbon, Environ. Sci. Technol.”, Vol. 34, Issue 1, pp. 154-159.

[18]   Moreno-Castilla, C., Carrasco-Marin, F., Maldonado-Hodar F., Riviera-Utrilla, J., 1998, “Effects of Non-Oxidant and Oxidant Acid Treatments on the Surface Properties of an Activated Carbon with Very Low Ash Content”, Carbon, 36, Issue 1-2, pp. 145-151.

[19]   Asada, T., Ohkubo, T., Kawata, K., and Oikawa, K., 2006, “Ammonia Adsorption on Bamboo Charcoal with Acid Treatment”, Journal of Health Science, Vol. 52, Issue 5, pp.585-589.

[20]   Igwe, J., Abia, A., and Ibeh, C., 2008, “Adsorption kinetics and intraparticulate diffusivities of Hg, As and Pb ions on unmodified and thiolated coconut fiber”, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 83-92.

[21]   Ho, Y., 2006, “Second order kinetic model for the sorption of cadmium ions onto tree fern: A comparison of linear and non-linear methods”, Water Research, Vol. 40, Issue 1, pp. 119-125.

 
 
Top