ABSTRACT Phosphorous is widely considered as an impurity in steels. Consequently, its role as an
important alloying element in iron could never be established. The present paper deals with the
exploitation of phosphorous as a useful alloying element in iron in conjunction with carbon by
way of improved thermo-mechanical processing leading to a tough steel equivalent to high
strength low alloy steels. It was observed that phosphorous is pushed towards ferrite grains by
carbon which in turn forms pearlite along ferrite grains. Suitable adjustment in the amounts of
carbon and phosphorous yields an attractive set of mechanical properties after appropriate
processing. Typical chemistry and processing combinations yields UTS: 700 MPa and % El:
25% Area under the stress-strain curve: 60 Joules.
Cite this paper
Y. Mehta and P. Mishra, "Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Iron-Phosphorous-Carbon Alloys," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2011, pp. 93-100. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.101006.
 Allen N. P. in ‘Iron and its dilute solid solutions’, 1963, New York, Willey Interscience 271-308.
Balasubramaniam, R., Corros. Sci., 2000 42 2103–2129.
Balasubramaniam R 2002 Delhi iron pillar—New insights (Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study)
Clarke B. D. and McIvor I. D., Ironmaking & Steelmaking, 1989, 16, 335-344.
Dieter G. E.,’ Mechanical Metallurgy’, 3 rd edn, 1988, London, McGraw-Hill.
Goodway M. and Fisher R.M., Hist. Metall., 1988, 22, 21-23
Hopkins B E and Tipler H R 1958 J. Iron Steel Inst. 188, 218
Muchnik S. V., Phosphorus-containing alloys, in: Encyclopedia of Inorganic Materials [in
Russian], Vol. 2, USE, Kiev 1977, 666-667.
Percy J., ‘Metallurgy- iron and steel’, 1864, London, John Murray.
Rostoker W. and Bronson B., ‘Pre industrial iron-its technology and ethnology’,
Archaeomaterials Monograph No.1, 1990, Philadelphia, PA, University of Pennsylvania.
Stewart J W, Charles J A and Wallach E R 2000 Mater. Sci. Technol. 16, 275
Suzuki S, Obata M, Abiko K and Kimura H 1985 Trans. ISIJ 25, 62
Tikkanen M.H., ‘The application of sintering theory in practice,’ Physics of sintering- Theory and Practice, Edited by M.M.Risti.., 1973, 441-453.
Tylecote R. E., ‘The prehistory of metallurgy in the British Isles’, 1986, London, the Institute of Metals.
Wiemer K. ‘Early British iron edged tools- a metallurgical survey’ Ph D thesis, University of Cambridge, 1993
Wranglen G Corrosion Science, 1970, 10, 761- 770.