ABSTRACT Kidney stone consists of various organic, inorganic and semi organic compounds.
Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate is the main inorganic constituent of kidney
stones. However, mechanisms leading to the formation of mineral oxalate kidney stones are
not clearly understood. In this field of study, there are several hypotheses including
nucleation, crystal growth and or aggregation of formation of AOMH (Ammonium oxalate
monohydrate) and AODH (Ammonium oxalate di-hydrate) crystals. The effect of some
urinary species such as ammonium oxalates, calcium, citrate, proteins and trace elements
were reported by the author. The kidney stone constituents are grown in the kidney
environments, the silica gel medium (SMS) which provides the necessary growth simulation
(in-vivo). In the artificial urinary stone growth process, identification of growth parameters
with in the different chemical environment was carried out and reported for the urinary
crystals such as CHP, SHP, BHP and MHP. In the present study, AMHP (Ammonium
magnesium hydrogen phosphate) crystals are grown in three different growth faces to attain
the total nucleation reduction. Extension of this research is that many characterization
studies have been carried out and the results are reported.
Cite this paper
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