ASM handbook, failure analysis and prevention, vol. 11, ASM International,Materials Park (OH) (1996).
Colangelo, V.J. and Heiser, F.A., Analysis of metallurgical failures (2nd ed.),Wiley, New York (NY) (1987).
El-Batahgy, A. and Zaghloul, B., “Creep failure of cracking heater at a petrochemical plant,” Materials Characterization, v. 54, n. 3, March 2005, 239-245
Kumar, R.A., Sinha, S.K., Tiwari, Y.N., Swaminathan, J., Das, G. and Chaudhuri S., Analysis of failed reformer tubes, Engineering Failure Analysis, 10 (2003),351-358.
Ashby, M.F. Deformation-Mechanism, Maps, Acta Metallurgica, v. 20, 887-897,1972.
Dyson, B. Use of CDM in Materials Modeling and Component Creep Life Prediction, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., v. 122, 281-296, 2000.
Ejaz, N. and Tauqir, A., “Failure due to structural degradation in turbine blades,”Engineering Failure Analysis, v.13, n. 3, April 2006, 452-463.
Barbosa, C., Nascimento, J.L., Caminha, I.M.V. and. Abud, I.C, “Microstructural aspects of the failure analysis of nickel base superalloys components, “Engineering Failure Analysis, v. 12, n. 3, June 2005, 348-361
Pang, H.T., and Reed, P.A.S.k, “Microstructure effects on high temperature fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth in turbine disc nickel-base superalloy Udimet 720Li,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, v. 448, n. 1-2,15 March 2007, 67-79.
Coreno-Alonso, O., Duffus-Scott, A., Zánchez-Cornejo, C., Core?o-Alonso, J.,de Jesús, F.S., and Bolarín-Miró, A., “On the effect of a-phase formation during metal dusting,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, v. 84, n. 1, March 2004, 20-28.
Kobayashi, K., Yamaguchi, K., Hayakawa, M., and Kimura, M., “Grain size effect on high-temperature fatigue properties of alloy718,” Materials Letters v.59, n. 2-3, February 2005, 383-386.
Bulloch, J. H. and Bernard, P. J.,” A remaining life assessment of a cracked attemperator steam line,” Engineering Failure Analysis, v.8, n. 6, December 2001, 529-540.
Shang, D.G., Sun, G.Q., Yan,C.L., Chen, J.H., and Cai, N., “Creep-fatigue life prediction under fully-reversed multiaxial loading at high temperatures,” International Journal of Fatigue, v. 29, n. 4, April 2007, 705-712.
Inoue, T., Okazaki, M., Igari, T., Sakane, M. and Kishi, S., “Evaluation of fatigue-creep life prediction methods in multiaxial stress state,” Nuclear Engineering and Design 126 (1991), 13–21.
Ogata, T. and Yaguchi, M., “Damage mechanism in weldment of 2.25Cr–1Mo steel under creep–fatigue loading,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics v. 74, n. 6, April 2007, 947-955.
Elmer, J.W., Palmer , T.A., and Specht, E.D., “In situ observations of sigma phase dissolution in 2205 duplex stainless steel using synchrotron X-ray diffraction,” Materials Science and Engineering: A 459 (2007) 151–155.
 Kington, A. V. and Noble, F. W., “a-phase embrittlement of a type 310 stainless steel,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Volume 138, Issue 2, 15 June 1991, 259-266.
 Barcik, J, “The kinetics of a-phase precipitation in AISI310 and AISI316 steels,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions: A, v. 14, n. 3, March, 1983, 635-641.
Solomon, H.D., Devine, T.M., in R.D. Lula (Ed.), Duplex Stainless Steels, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1983, pp. 693–756.
Sedriks,J., “Corrosion of Stainless Steels”, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition (New York, NY 1996), p. 22.
Jahromi, S.A.J., Javadpour, S., and Gheisari, Kh., “Failure analysis of welded joints in a power plant exhaust flue,” Engineering Failure Analysis, v. 13, n. 4, June 2006, 527-536.
Honeycombe, R.W.K. Steels: Microstructure and Properties, (Arnold, London, 1995-2nd ed).
Brett, S.J., “In-service cracking mechanism affecting 2CrMo welds in 1/2CrMoV steam pipework systems,” Proceeding of international conference on integrity of high-temperature welds, IOM (1998), pp. 3–14.
Peckner, D., Bernstein, I. M., Handbook of Stainless Steels, McGraw-Hill, 1977.
Lamb, S. and Bringas, J.E., eds, Practical Handbook of Stainless Steels & Nickel Alloys ASM International; 1 edition (October 1999).
Blair, M. C., “Cast Stainless Steels,” Metals Handbook, Vol. 1 (Materials Park,OH: ASM International, 1990), 908.
Zhu, S. J., Wang, Y. and Wang, F. G., ”Comparison of the creep crack growth resistance of HK40 and HP40 heat-resistant steels, Journal of Materials Science Letters, v. 9, n. 5, May, 1990, 520-521.
Pankiw, R. I., Voke, D.P., Muralidharan, G., Evans, N. D., Stevens, C. O., Liu, K. C., Santella, M. L., Maziasz, P. J., and Sikka, V. K,. “Precipitation and its effect on the design of cast heat resistant alloys,” Corrosion/ 2007, paper 7424.
Authors’ personal investigative experiences.
Ezuber, H.M., El-Houd, A., El-Shawesh, F., “Effects of sigma phase precipitation on seawater pitting of duplex stainless steel,” Desalination 207, 2007, 268–275.
Lopez, N., Cid, N., and Puiggali, M., “Influence of ?-phase on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, “Corrosion Science, v. 41, n. 8, 1 August 1999, 1615-1631. Scripta Materialia, v. 50, n. 10, May 2004, 1351-1354.
Johnson, E., Kim, Y.J., Chumbley, L.S., and Gleeson, B., “Initial phase transformation diagram determination for the CD3MN cast duplex stainless steel,”
 Wilms, M.E., Gadgil, V.J., Krougman, J.M., Kolster, B.H., “Effect of a-phase precipitation at 800°C on the mechanical properties of a high alloyed duplex stainless steel,” Materials at High Temperatures, v. 9, n. 3, August 1991, 160-166.
Patankar, S.N., Tan, M.J., “Sigma phase precipitation during superplastic forming
of duplex stainless steel,” Materials at High Temperatures, v. 19, n. 1, 2002, 41-44.
M. C. Blair, “Cast Stainless Steels,” Metals Handbook, ASM International, V.11990), page, 908.
Hansen, D. A., and Puyear, R.B., Materials selection for hydrocarbon and chemical plants, Marcel Dekker, INC., 1996.
Hau, J., and Seijas, A., “Sigma phase embrittlement of stainless steel in FCC service,” CORROSION2006, paper 06578.
Metals Handbook, Vol. 13: Corrosion, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1987, p. 11.
Li, J., Wu, T., and Riquier, Y., “Sigma phase precipitation and its effect on the mechanical properties of a super duplex stainless steel, “Materials Science. And Engineering, A174, p. 149-156 (1994).
Tiong, D.K-K, Walsh, J., and, McHaney, J.H.,”Technical challenges in using super duplex stainless steel,” CORROSION2006, paper6147.
Vander Voort, G.F., Properties and selection: iron steels and high performance alloys, Metals Handbook, vol. 1, 10th ed., ASM International, 2001, p. 709.
Kobayashi, D.Y., and Wolynec, S., “Evaluation of the low corrosion resistant phase formed during the sigma phase precipitation in duplex-stainless steels,” Materials Research, 1999, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 239-247.
Natesan, K., “Materials performance in coal fluidized bed combustion environment,” 10th International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, September 20--24, 1993.
Sedriks, A.J. Corrosion of Stainless Steels, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Zucato, I., Moreira, M.C., Machado, I.F., and Lebrao, S.M., “ Microstructural characterization and the effect of phase transformations on toughness of the UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel aged treated at 850°C,” Materials Research,July/Sept. 2002, vol.5, no.3, p.385-389.
STEEL CASTINGS HANDBOOK Supplement 9 High Alloy Data Sheets Heat Series Steel Founders' Society of America 2004
Dove, D., Messer, B., and Phillips, T.,”An austenitic stainless steel, resistant to high temperature creep and naphthenic acids attack in refinery environments,” CORROSION2001, paper 01523.
Nicolio, C.J., and Holmquist, M., “Duplex alloys; challenging corrosion in the New millennium,” CORROION2002, paper 02120.
Tang, Y.J., Wang, Q.M., Yuan, F.H., Gong, J., and Sun, C., “High-temperature oxidation behavior of arc ion plated NiCoCrAlYSiB coatings on cobalt-based super alloy,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, page 737. Mar 2006.