M. Layrisse, J. D. Cook, C. Martinez, M. Roche, I. N. Kuhn, R. B. Walker and C. A. Finch, “Food Iron Absorption: A Comparison of Vegetable and Animal Foods,” Blood, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1969, pp. 430-443.
 C. E. Carpenter and A. W. Mahoney, “Contributions of Heme and Nonheme Iron to Human Nutrition,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1992, pp. 333-367. doi:10.1080/10408399209527576
 M. Glei, G. O. Latunde-Dada, A. Klinder, T. W. Becker, U. Hermann, K. Voigt and B. L. Pool-Zobel, “IronOverload Induces Oxidative DNA Damage in the Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line HT29 Clone 19A,” Mutation Research, Vol. 519, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 151-161.
 A. Tappel, “Heme of Consumed Red Meat Can Act as a Catalyst of Oxidative Damage and Could Initiate Colon, Breast and Prostate Cancers, Heart Disease and Other Diseases,” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2007, pp. 562-564. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.08.025
 A. L. Sesink, D. S. Termont, J. H. Kleibeuker and R. Van der Meer, “Red Meat and Colon Cancer: The Cytotoxic and Hyperproliferative Effects of Dietary Heme,” Cancer Research, Vol. 59, 1999, pp. 5704-5709.
 A. L. Sesink, D. S. Termont, J. H. Kleibeuker and R. Van Der Meer, “Red Meat and Colon Cancer: Dietary Haem, but Not Fat, Has Cytotoxic and Hyperproliferative Effects on Rat Colonic Epithelium,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2000, pp. 1909-1915. doi:10.1093/carcin/21.10.1909
 F. Pierre, A. Freeman, S. Tache, R. Van der Meer and D. E. Corpet, “Beef Meat and Blood Sausage Promote the Formation of Azoxymethane-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci and Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rat Colons,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 10, 2004, pp. 2711-2716.
 R. Hughes, A. J. Cross, J. R. Pollock and S. Bingham, “Dose-Dependent Effect of Dietary Meat on Endogenous Colonic N-Nitrosation,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001, pp. 199-202. doi:10.1093/carcin/22.1.199
 A. J. Cross, J. R. Pollock and S. A. Bingham, “Heam, Not Protein or Inorganic Iron, Is Responsible for Endogenous Intestinal N-Nitrosation Arising from Red Meat,” Cancer Research, Vol. 63, No. 10, 2003, pp. 2358-2360.
 C. E. Carpenter and E. Clark, “Evaluation of Methods Used in Meat Iron Analysis and Iron Content of Raw and Cooked Meats,” Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1824-1827. doi:10.1021/jf00055a014
 R. Kongkachuichai, P. Napatthalung and R. Charoensiri, “Heme and Non-Heme Iron Content of Animal Products Commonly Consumed in Thailand,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2002, pp. 389-398. doi:10.1006/jfca.2002.1080
 H. F. Balder, J. Vogel, M. C. Jansen, M. P. Weijenberg, P. A. van den Brandt, S. Westenbrink, R. van der Meer and R. A. Goldbohm, “Heme and Chlorophyll Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 15, 2006, pp. 717-725. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0772
 C. Martinez-Torres, I. Leets, P. Taylor, J. Ramirez, M. del V. Camacho and M. Layrisse, “Heme, Ferritin and Vegetable Iron Absorption in Humans from Meals Denatured of Heme Iron during the Cooking of Beef,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 116, No. 9, 1986, pp. 1720-1725.
 B. R. Schricker and D. D. Miller, “Effects of Cooking and Chemical Treatment on Heme and Nonheme Iron in Meat,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 48, No. 4, 1983, p. 1340. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb09225.x
 J. O. Igene, J. A. King, A. M. Pearson and J. I. Gray, “Influence of Heme Pigments, Nitrite, and Non-Heme Iron on Development of Warmed-Over Flavor (WOF) in Cooked Meat,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1979, pp. 838-841. doi:10.1021/jf60224a052
 R. Sinha, M. G. Knize, C. P. Salmon, E. D. Brown, D. Rhodes, J. S. Felton, O. A. Levander and N. Rothman, “Heterocyclic Amine Content of Pork Products Cooked by Different Methods and to Varying Degrees of Doneness,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1998, pp. 289-297. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00159-2
 R. Sinha, N. Rothman, C. P. Salmon, M. G. Knize, E. D. Brown, C. A. Swanson, D. Rhodes, S. Rossi, J. S. Felton and O. A. Levander, “Heterocyclic Amine Content in Beef Cooked by Different Methods to Varying Degrees of Doneness and Gravy Made from Meat Drippings,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1998, pp. 279-287. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00162-2
 R. Sinha, N. Rothman, E. D. Brown, C. P. Salmon, M. G. Knize, C. A. Swanson, S. C. Rossi, S. D. Mark, O. A. Levander and J. S. Felton, “High Concentrations of the Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) Occur in Chicken but Are Dependent on the Cooking Method,” Cancer Research, Vol. 55, 1995, pp. 4516-4519.
 H. C. Hornsey, “The Colour of Cooked Cured Pork. I.Estimation of the Nitric Oxide-Haem Pigments,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 7, No. 8, 1956, pp. 534-540. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740070804
 T. T. Fung, M. Schulze, J. E. Manson, W. C. Willett and F. B. Hu, “Dietary Patterns, Meat Intake, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 164, No. 20, 2004, pp. 2235-2240. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.20.2235
 L. Qi, R. M. van Dam, K. Rexrode and F. B. Hu, “Heme Iron From Diet as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease in Women with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2007, pp. 101-106. doi:10.2337/dc06-1686
 D. H. Lee, K. E. Anderson, A. R. Folsom and D. R. Jacobs, Jr., “Heme Iron, Zinc and Upper Digestive Tract Cancer: The Iowa Women’s Health Study,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 117, No. 4, 2005, pp. 643-647. doi:10.1002/ijc.21215
 D. H. Lee, K. E. Anderson, L. J. Harnack, A. R. Folsom and D. R. Jacobs, Jr., “Heme iron, Zinc, Alcohol Consumption, and Colon Cancer: Iowa Women’s Health Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 96, No. 5, 2004, pp. 403-407. doi:10.1093/jnci/djh047
 S. C. Larsson, H. O. Adami, E. Giovannucci and A. Wolk, “Re: Heme Iron, Zinc, Alcohol Consumption, and Risk of Colon Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 97, No. 3, 2005, pp. 232-233. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji032
 G. C. Kabat, A. B. Miller, M. Jain and T. E. Rohan, “A Cohort Study of Dietary Iron and Heme Iron Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women,” British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 97, 2007, pp. 118-122. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603837
 D. H. Lee and D. R. Jacobs, Jr., “Interaction among Heme Iron, Zinc, and And Supplemental Vitamin C Intake on the Risk of Lung Cancer: Iowa Women’s Health Study,” Nutrition & Cancer, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2005, pp. 130-137. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5202_3
 G. C. Kabat, A. B. Miller, M. Jain and T. E. Rohan, “Dietary Iron and Heme Iron Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2007, pp. 13061308. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0086
 G. C. Kabat, A. B. Miller, M. Jain and T. E. Rohan, “Dietary Iron and Haem Iron Intake and Risk of Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study,” British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 98, 2008, pp. 194-198. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604110