OJAP  Vol.1 No.1 , June 2012
Extreme Temperature Variability over High Topography
Abstract: The temperature variability was studied using linear regression models, Man-Kendall (M-K) rank statistics, mean monthly and annual temperature anomalies, number of hot and cold days and nights per annum. The temperature time series (mean, minimum and maximum) has shown a warming trend of the local air during last two decades. The maximum and minimum of the monthly mean temperatures of 23.35°C and 13.25°C were observed in June and January, respectively. Similarly, the maximum and minimum temperature ranges of 13.4°C and 8.2°C were found in December and June. The ratios between the hottest and coldest month’s monthly mean maximum and monthly mean minimum temperatures were 1.039 and 1.033, respectively. The best fit linear line showed an increase of 0.048°C per annum in the annual mean temperature with a coefficient of determination of 52%. An overall increase of 1.01°C was found between 1985. The Mann-Kendall rank statistics test confirmed the warming trends of the local atmospheric environment of Abha city.
Cite this paper: S. Rehman, L. Al-Hadhrami and M. Mohandes, "Extreme Temperature Variability over High Topography," Open Journal of Air Pollution, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2012.11001.

[1]   N. Nicholls and D. Collins, “Observed Climate Change in Australia over the Past Century,” Energy & Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1260/095830506776318804

[2]   C. K. Folland, T. R. Karl, J. R. Christy, R. A. Clark, G. V. Gruza, J. Jouzel, M. E. Mann, J. Oerlemans, M. J. Salinger and S. W. Wang, “Observed Climate Variability and Change 2001: The Scientific Basis,” In: G. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van de Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C. A. Johnson, Eds, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001, pp. 99-181.

[3]   IPCC, “Climate Change 2001 Synthesis Report,” Cam-bridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001.

[4]   Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva, “On Climate Variability in Northeast of Brazil,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 58, No. 4, 2004, pp. 575-596. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2003.12.002

[5]   T. Tonkaz and M. Cetin, “Effects of Urbanization and Land-Use Type on Monthly Extreme Temperatures in a Developing Semi-Arid Region, Turkey,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2007, pp. 143-158. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.03.020

[6]   C. Serra, A. Burgueno and X. Lana, “Analysis of Maximum and Minimum Daily Temperatures Recorded at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona, Spain) in the Period 1917- 1998,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2001, pp. 617-636. doi:10.1002/joc.633

[7]   S. Nizamuddin, “Spatial and Temporal Variations of Rainfall over India,” Fifth International Conference on Precipitation, Crete, 14-16 June 1995.

[8]   H. M. Hasanean, “Fluctuations of Surface Air Temperature in the East Mediterranean,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 68, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 75-87.

[9]   H. M. Kafle and H. J. Bruins, “Climate Trends in Israel 1970-2002: Warmer and Increasing Aridity Inland,” Climatic Change, Vol. 96, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 63-77. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9578-2

[10]   A. Toreti and F. Desiato, “Temperature Trend over Italy from 1961-2004,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 91, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 51-58. doi:10.1007/s00704-006-0289-6

[11]   M. Rebetez and M. Reinhard, “Monthly Air Temperature Trends in Switzerland 1901-2000 and 1975-2004,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 91, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 27-34. doi:10.1007/s00704-007-0296-2

[12]   M. Turkes, U. M. Sumer and G. K?l?c, “Observed Changes in Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Turkey,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1996, pp. 463-477.

[13]   M. Kad?oglu, “Trends in Surface Air Temperature Data over Turkey,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1997, pp. 511-520. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199704)17:5<511::AID-JOC130>3.0.CO;2-0

[14]   N. A. Elagib and M. G. Mansell, “Recent Trends and Anomalies in Mean Seasonal and Annual Temperatures over Sudan,” Journal of Arid Environment, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2000, pp. 263-288. doi:10.1006/jare.2000.0639

[15]   P. Domonkos, “Temporal Accumulations of Extreme Daily Mean Temperature Anomalies,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 68, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 17-32. doi:10.1007/s007040170050

[16]   M. Kad?oglu and L. Saylan, “Trends in Growing Degree-Days in Turkey,” Water Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 126, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 83-96.

[17]   H. A. Nasrallah, E. Nieplova and E. Ramadan, “Warm Season Extreme Temperature Events in Kuwait,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2004, pp. 357-371. doi:10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00007-7

[18]   M. Turkes, U. M. Sumer and I. Demir, “Re-Evaluation of Trends and Changes in Mean, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures of Turkey for the Period 1929-1999,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2002, pp. 947-977.

[19]   N. A. Elagib and A. S. Addin Abdu, “Climate variability and aridity in Bahrain,” Journal of Arid Environment, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1997, pp. 405-419. doi:10.1006/jare.1996.0237

[20]   F. M. Alkolibi, “Possible Effects of Global Warming on Agriculture and Water Resources in Saudi Arabia: Impacts and Responses,” Climatic Change, Vol. 54, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 225-245. doi:10.1023/A:1015777403153

[21]   M. Freiwana and M. Kadioglub, “Climate Variability in Jordan,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, pp. 69-89. doi:10.1002/joc.1512

[22]   H. B. Mann, “Nonparametric Tests against Trend,” Econometrica, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1945, pp. 245-259. doi:10.2307/1907187

[23]   M. G. Kendall, “Rank Correlation Methods,” Griffin, London, 1975.

[24]   C. Koutsikopoulos, P. Beillois, C. Leroy and F. Taillefer, “Temporal Trends and Spatial Structures of the Sea Surface Temperature in the Bay of Biscay,” Oceanologica Acta, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1998, pp. 335-344.