ABSTRACT The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for the physiological production of NO in endo-thelial cells and platelets. There is evidence that the G894T polymorphism of the eNOS gene is associated with this enzyme's basal activity and NO production, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases (PD). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of G894T polymorphism in the eNOS gene as a predisposing factor to periodontal disease. In this study we investigated the association of this polymorphism with PD in an admix-ture population (N = 119) separated into three groups: Healthy control, Moderate and Severe PD, without statistical differences among them for risk factors for PD, such as age, gender and smoking status. We observed that the GG ge-notype was associated with the progression of PD as indicated by an increase in frequency of approximately 18% in the Moderate and 26% in the Severe groups compared to the Healthy control group (p = 0.0302). This finding indicates that patients carrying the GG genotype have a greater chance of developing PD compared with those carrying the T allele, and it reinforces the notion that genetic factors contribute to the development and aggravation of PD.
Cite this paper
F. Amorim, M. Depoli, G. Simões, B. Campagnaro, C. Tonini, I. Louro, J. Arruda, E. Vasquez and S. Meyrelles, "Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism and Periodontal Disease," Open Journal of Blood Diseases, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 34-37. doi: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.22007.
 M. L. Laine, B. G. Loos and W. Crielaard, “Gene Polymorphisms in chronic Periodontitis,” International Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 2010, 2010, Article ID 324719, 22 p. doi:10.1155/2010/324719
 A. Berdeli, A. Gürkan, G. Emingil, G. Atilla and T. K?se, “Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Glu298Asp Gene Polymorphism in Periodontal Diseases,” Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 77, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1348-1354.
 J. E. Tanus-Santos, M. Desai, L. R. Deak, J. C. Pezzullo, D. R. Abernethy, D. A. Flockhart and J. E. Freedman, “Effects of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms on Platelet Function, Nitric Oxide Release, and Interactions with Estradiol,” Pharmacogenetics, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2000, pp. 407-413.
 S. B. Abramson, A. R. Amin, R. M. Clancy and M. Attur, “The Role of Nitric Oxide in Tissue Destruction,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1831-845. doi:10.1053/berh.2001.0196
 R. J. van’t Hof and S. H. Ralston, “Nitric Oxide and Bone,” Immunology, Vol. 103, No. 3, 2001, pp. 255-261.
 M. Tesauro, W. C. Thompson, P. Rogliani, L. Qi, P. P. Chaudhary and J. Moss, “Intracellular Processing of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms Associated with Differences in Severity of Cardiopulmonary Diseases: Cleavage of Proteins with Aspartate vs. Glutamate at Position 298,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 97, 2000, pp. 2832-2835.
 L. N. Borrell and P. N. Papapanou, “Analytical Epidemiology of Periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Vol. 6, 2005, pp. 132-158.
 J. P. Casas, L. EBautista, S. E. Humphries and A. D. Hingorani, “Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype and Ischemic Heart Disease: Meta-Analysis of 26 Studies Involving 23028 Subjects,” Circulation, Vol. 109, 2004, pp. 1359-1365.
 C. P. Leeson, A. D. Hingorani, M. J. Mullen, N. Jeerooburkhan, M. Kattenhorn, T. J. Cole, D. P. Muller, A. Lucas, S. E. Humphries and J. E. Deanfield, “Glu298Asp Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism Interacts with Environmental and Dietary Factors to Influence Endothelial Function,” Circulation Research, Vol. 90, 2002, pp. 1153-1158.
 K. Erciyas, S. Pehlivan, T. Sever, M. Igci, M. Pehlivan, A. Arslan and R. Orbak. “Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Periodontal Diseases in Turkish Adults,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 9, No. 21, 2010, pp. 3042-3047.
 I. F. Metzger, D. C. Souza-Costa, A. S. Marroni, S. Nagassaki, Z. Desta, D. A. Flockhart and J. E. Tanus-Santos, “Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Haplotypes Associated with Circulating Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Products in Healthy Men,” Pharmacogenetics Genomics, Vol. 15, No. 8, 2005, pp. 565-570.
 I. F. Metzger, J. T. Sertório and J. E. Tanus-Santos, “Modulation of Nitric Oxide Formation by Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Haplotype,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2007, pp. 987-992.
 P. Kleinbongard, A. Dejam, T. Lauer, T. Rassaf, A. Schindler, O. Picker, T. Scheeren, A. G?decke, J. Schrader, R. Schulz, G. Heusch, G. A. Schaub, N. S. Bryan, M. Feelisch and M. Kelm, “Plasma Nitrite Reflects Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Mammals,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2003, pp. 790-796.