AS  Vol.3 No.4 , July 2012
Yield and uptake of bahiagrass under flooded environment as affected by nitrogen fertilization
Abstract: Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) is one of the most important forage grasses in subtropical region of USA and other tropical regions of the world. Although tolerant to short term flooding, bahiagrass is classified as a facultative upland (FACU+) species that suggest yield and plant persistence might be reduced under periods of extended waterlogging. The objective of this greenhouse study (2008-2009) was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization (0, 100, and 200 kg·N·ha–1) on yield (DMY), crude protein content (CPC), and nitrogen uptake (NUP) of bahiagrass under varying flooded conditions (0, 14, 28, 56, and 84 days). Results disclosed an overwhelming effect of N application on yield and uptake component of bahiagrass. Averaged across flooding duration, results showed that DMY (R2 = 0.91**), CPC (R2= 0.96**), and NUP (R2 = 0.99**) were linearly related to increasing levels of N fertilization. Plants without N fertilization that were submerged between 14 to 84 days had significantly lower amount of DMY when compared with plants that were fertilized with 100 or 200 kg·N·ha–1. Comparable DMY and NUP were obtained between plants fertilized with 200 kg·N·ha–1) at 0 day of flooding (11.7 ± 5.0 ton·ha–1) and plants fertilized with 200 kg·N·ha–1 at 84 days of flooding (9.8 ± 2.7 ton·ha–1). The practical implication of this study is that waterlogging may hamper yield and uptake while nitrogen fertilization could improve yield and uptake of bahiagrass under waterlogged condition.
Cite this paper: Sigua, G. , Williams, M. , Chase Jr., C. , Albano, J. and Kongchum, M. (2012) Yield and uptake of bahiagrass under flooded environment as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 491-500. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.34058.

[1]   Trought, M.C. and Drew, M.C. (1980) The development of waterlogging in wheat seedlings. I. Shoot and root growth in relation to changes in the concentration of dissolved gases and solutes in the soil solution. Plant Soil, 54, 77-94. doi:10.1007/BF02182001

[2]   Jackson, M.B. (1985) Ethylene and the responses of plants to soil waterlogging and submergence. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 36, 145-174. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.36.060185.001045

[3]   Luttge, V. and Pittman, M.G. (1976) Transport and Energy. Encyclopedia Plant Physiol, 2, 251-259.

[4]   Chambliss, C.G. (1999) Bahiagrass. In: Florida Forage Handbook, Chambliss, C.G., Ed., University of Florida, Gainesville, 90.

[5]   Naidoo, G. and Mundree, S.G. (1993) Relationship between morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging and salinity in Sporobolus virginicus (L). Oecologia, 93, 360-366. doi:10.1007/BF00317879

[6]   Rubio, G., Casasola, G. and Lavado, R.S. (1995) Adaptation and biomass production of two grasses in response to waterlogging and soil nutrient enrichment. Oecologia, 102, 102-105.

[7]   Crawford, R.M. (1993) Plant survival without oxygen. Biologist, 40, 110-114.

[8]   Drew, M.C., Sisworo, E.J. and Saker, L.R. (1979) Alleviation of waterlogging damage to young barley plants by application of nitrate and synthetic cytokinin. New Phytologist, 82, 315-329. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1979.tb02657.x

[9]   Hodgson, A.S. (1982) The effects of duration, timing and chemical amelioration of short-term waterlogging during furrow irrigation of cotton in cracking gray soil. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 33, 1019-1028. doi:10.1071/AR9821019

[10]   Gallagher, R.N., Weldon, G.O. and Boswell, F.C. (1976) A semi-automated procedure for total nitrogen in plant and soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40, 887-889. doi:10.2136/sssaj1976.03615995004000060026x

[11]   SAS Institute (2000) SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Release 6.03. SAS Institute, Cary.

[12]   Voesenek, L.A.C.J., Colmer, T.D., Pierik, R., Millenaar, F.F., Peeters, A.J. and Peeters, M. (2006) How plants cope with complete sub-mergence. New Phytologist, 170, 213- 226. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01692.x

[13]   Atkinson, D. (1973) Some general effects of phosphorus deficiency on growth and development. New Phytologist, 72, 101-111. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1973.tb02014.x

[14]   Aerts, R. and Vander, P.J.M. (1991) The relation between above- and belowground biomass allocation patterns and competitive ability. Oecologia, 87, 551-559. doi:10.1007/BF00320419

[15]   Kozlowski, T.T. (1984) Plant responses to flooding. Bio- Science, 34, 162-167. doi:10.2307/1309751

[16]   Heathcote, C.A., Davies, M.S. and Etherington, J.R. (1987) Phenotypic flexibility of Carex flacca (Shreb) tolerance of soil flooding by populations from contrasting habitats. New Phytologist, 105, 381-392. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1987.tb00875.x

[17]   Naidoo, G. and Naidoo, S. (1992) Waterlogging responses of Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth. Oecologia, 90, 445- 450. doi:10.1007/BF00317704

[18]   Loreti, J. and Oesterheld, M. (1996) Intraspecific variation in the resistance to flooding and drought in populations of Paspalum dilitatum from different topographic positions. Oecologia, 92, 279-284.

[19]   Crawford, R.M., Studer, C. and Studer, K. (1989) Deprivation indifference as a survival strategy in competition, advantages and disadvantages of anoxia tolerance in wetland vegetation. Flora, 182, 189-201.

[20]   Insausti, P., Chaneton, E.J. and Soriano, A. (1999) Flooding reverted grazing effects on plant community structure in mesocosms of lowland grassland. Oikos, 84, 266-276. doi:10.2307/3546721

[21]   Laan, P., Tosserama, M., Blom, C.W.P.M. and Veen, B.W. (1990) Internal oxygen transport in Rumex species and its significance for respiration under hypoxic conditions. Plant and Soil, 122, 39-46. doi:10.1007/BF02851908

[22]   Van der Samn, A.J.M., Voesenek, L.A.C.J., Blom, C.W.P.M., Harren, F.J.M. and Reuss, J. (1991) The role of ethylene in shoot elongation with respect to survival and seed out- put of flooded Rumes maritimus L. plants. Functional Ecology, 5, 304-313. doi:10.2307/2389269

[23]   Jackson, M.B., Drew, M.C. (1984) Effects of flooding on growth and metabolism of herbaceous plants. In: Kozlowski, E.T., Ed., Flooding and Plant Growth, Academic Press, Orlando, 47-128.

[24]   Hart, R.H., Burton, G.W. and Jackson, J.E. (1965) Seasonal variation in chemical composition and yield of Coastal bermudagrass as affected by nitrogen fertilization schedule. Agronomy Journal, 57, 381-385. doi:10.2134/agronj1965.00021962005700040022x

[25]   Mathias, E.L., Bennet, O.L. and Lundberg, P.E. (1973) Effect of rates of nitrogen on yield, nitrogen use, and winter survival of Midland bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, L) in Appalachia. Agronomy Journal, 65, 65-67.

[26]   Horn, F.P. and Taliaferro, C.M. (1974) Yield, composition, and IVDMD of four bermudagrass. Journal of Animal Science, 38, 224.

[27]   Barth, K.M., McLaren, J.B., Fribourg, H.A. and Carver, L.A. (1982) Crude protein content of forage consumed by steers grazing N-fertilized. Bermuda grass and Orchard Grass-Ladino clover pastures. Journal of Animal Science, 55, 1008- 1014.

[28]   Chapin, F.S. (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 233-260. doi:10.1146/

[29]   Struik, G. and Bary, J.R. (1970) Root-shoot ratios of native forest herbs and Zea mays at different soil-moisture levels. Ecology, 51, 892-893. doi:10.2307/1933983

[30]   Sigua, G.C. and Hudnall, W.H. (1992) Nitrogen and gypsum, management tools for revegetation and productivity improvement of brackish marsh in southwest Louisiana. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 23, 283-299. doi:10.1080/00103629209368588