Back
 CM  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2012
Preliminary Studies on Plants with Anthelmintic Properties in Kashmir—The North-West Temperate Himalayan Region of India
Abstract: There is a growing interest in traditional uses of plants for health care among different communities especially in the developing countries. Kashmir valley is a temperate agro-climatic zone of north-west temperate Himalayan region of India and is blessed with a diverse variety of medicinal flora. The traditional uses of plants against parasitic infections in human beings and their live-stock is a common practice in the valley as most of the populations are rural and conventional veterinary drugs are very expensive and therefore unaffordable. This study is an ethno-botanical survey of those plant species traditionally used as anthelmintic that may warrant scientific validation for efficacy. The survey utilized well structured questionnaire and detailed discussions and recorded 44 plant species belonging to 37 genera and 26 families claimed as traditional anthelmintics in different preparations and forms. Out of these some plant species like Artemisia absinthium (tethwen) and Achillea millifolium (pahel-ghassa) were scientifically validated for their claimed anthelmintic action against gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep. A few of other plants like Allium sativum (rohun), Myrsine africana have been scientifically validated for their claim by other people in various parts of the world. These plants together with other species reported in this study could be further scientifically evaluated for in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against a diverse variety of parasitic groups in host and non host animals. That will lay a foundation and set a targeted platform for pharmacological studies and development of novel anthelmintic products to fill a gap in the anthelmintic drug industry, which is facing the crisis of anthelmintic resistance to conventional anthelmintic drugs.
Cite this paper: K. Tariq and M. Tantry, "Preliminary Studies on Plants with Anthelmintic Properties in Kashmir—The North-West Temperate Himalayan Region of India," Chinese Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 106-112. doi: 10.4236/cm.2012.32017.
References

[1]   N. R. Farnsworth, O. Akerele, A. S. Bingel, et al., “Medicinal Plants in Therapy,” Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, Vol. 63, No. 6, 1985, pp. 965-981.

[2]   M. S. Akhtar, Z. Iqbal, M. N. Khan and M. Lateef, “Anthelmintic Activity of Medicinal Plants with Particular Reference to Their Use in Animals in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent,” Small Ruminant Research, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2000, pp. 99-107. doi:10.1016/S0921-4488(00)00163-2

[3]   Z. Iqbal, M. S. Akhter, S. Zia-UD-Din, et al., “Herbal Dewormers in Livestock-A Traditional Therapy International,” Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 5, No. 2 2003, pp. 199-206.

[4]   P. J. Waller, G. Bernes, S. M. Thamsborg, A. Sukura, S. H. Richter, K. Ingebrigtsen and J. Hoglund, “Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future,” Acta Veterinaria Scandinivia, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2001, pp. 31-44. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-42-31

[5]   S. Athanasiadou, I. Kyriazakis, F. Jackson and R. L. Coop, “Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins towards Different Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep: In vitro and in vivo Studies,” Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 99, No. 3, 2001, pp. 205-219. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00467-8

[6]   J. B. Githiori, J. Hoglund, P. J. Waller and R. L. Baker, “Anthelmintic Activity of Preparations Derived from Myrsine Africana and Rapanea Melanophloeos against the Nematode Parasite, Haemonchus Contortus, of Sheep,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 80, No. 2-3, 2002, pp. 187-191. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00030-2

[7]   Z. Iqbal, M. Lateef, A. Jabbar, G. Muhammah and M. N. Khan, “Anthelmintic Activity of Calotropis Procera (Ait.) Ait. F. Flowers in Sheep,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 102, No. 2, 2005, pp. 256-261. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.022

[8]   Z. Iqbal, M. Lateef, M. S. Akhter, M. N. Ghayur and A. H. Gilani, “In vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Ginger against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 106, No. 2, 2006, pp. 285-287. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.12.031

[9]   G. H. Dar, R. C. Bhagat and M. A. Khan, “Biodiversity of the Kashmir Himalaya,” Valley Book house, Srinagar, 2002.

[10]   M. K. Koul, “Medicinal Plants of Kashmir and Ladakh,” Industrial Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1997.

[11]   The Wealth of India, “National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources,” CSIR, New Delhi, 2003-2005.

[12]   M. Mwale, E. Bhebhe, M. Chimonyo and T. E. Halimani, “Use of Herbal Plants in Poultry Health Management in the Mushagashe Small-Scale Commercial Farming Area in Zimbabwe,” International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2005, pp. 163-170.

[13]   J. B. Githiori, S. Athanasiadou and S. M. Thamsborg, “Use of Plants in Novel Approaches for Control of Gastrointestinal Helminths in Livestock with Emphasis on Small Ruminants,” Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 139, No. 4, 2006, pp. 308-320. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.04.021

[14]   G. C. Waghorn and W. C. McNabb, “Consequences of Plant Phenolic Compounds for Productivity and Health of Ruminants,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2003, pp. 383-392. doi:10.1079/PNS2003245

[15]   C. Kahiya, S. Mukaratirwa and S. M. Thamsborg, “Effects of Acacia Nilotica and Acacia Karoo Diets on Haemonchus Contortus Infection in Goats,” Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 115, No. 3, 2003, pp. 265-274. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00213-9

[16]   V. R. Khobragade, C. R. Jangede and K. D. Maske, “In vitro Anthelmintic Trial of Extract of Allium Sativum Linn against Bunostomum Trigonocephalum in Goats,” Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1994, pp. 97-98.

[17]   Z. Iqbal, M. A. Munir, M. N. Khan, M. S. Akhter and I. Javed, “In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Sorghum Bicolor on Hatching and Moulting of Haemonchus Contortus Eggs,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2001, pp. 451-453.

[18]   Z. Iqbal, Q. K. Nadeem, M. N. Khan, M. S. Akhtar and F. N. Waraich, “In vitro Anthelminitc Activity of Allium Sativum, Zingiber Officinale, Curcurbita Mexicana and Ficus Religiosa,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2001, pp. 454-457.

[19]   M. S. Akhtar and I. Ahmad, “Evaluation of Antinematodal Efficacy of Tetrahydroharmine in Goats,” Veterinarski Arhiv, Vol. 61, 1999, pp. 307-311.

[20]   J. P. Meschler and A. C. Howlett, “Thujone Exhibits Low Affinity for Cannabinoid Receptors but Fails to Evoke Cannabimimetic Responses,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1999, pp. 413-480. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(98)00195-6

[21]   T. Baytop, “Therapy with Medicinal Plants in Turkey,” Istanbul University Press, Istanbul, 1984.

[22]   K. A. Tariq, M. Z. Chishti, F. Ahmad and A. S. Shawl, “Activity of Extracts of Artemisia Absinthium against Ovine Nematodes,” Veterinary Parasitology, 2009, Vol. 160, No. 1-2, pp. 83-88. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.10.084

[23]   Z. Iqbal, M. Lateef, M. Ashraf and A. Jabbar, “Anthelmintic Activity of Artemisia Brevifolia in Sheep,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 93, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 265-268. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.046

[24]   Z. Iqbal, M. Lateef, M. S. Akhter, M. N. Gayur and A. H. Gilani, “In vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Ginger against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 106, No. 2, 2006, pp. 285-287. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.12.031

[25]   P. M. L. Lourenco, A. C. Figueiredo, J. G. Barasso, L. G. Pedro, M. M. Oliveira, S. G. Deans and J. J. C. Scheffer, “Essential Oils from Hairy Root Cultures and from Plant Roots of Achillea Millifolium,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1999, pp. 637-642. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00083-7

[26]   M. K. Asha, D. Prashanth, B. Murali, R. Padmaja and A. Amit, “Anthelmintic Activity of Essential Oil of Ocimum Sanctum and Eugenol,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 72, No. 6, 2001, pp. 669-670. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(01)00270-2

[27]   K. A. Tariq, M. Z. Chishti, F. Ahmad and A. S. Shawl, “Anthelmintic Efficacy of Achillea Millifolium against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep: In Vitro and in vivo Studies,” Journal of Helminthology, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2008, pp. 227-233. doi:10.1017/S0022149X08972515

[28]   S. Athanasiadou and I. Kyriazakis, “Plant Secondary Metabolities: Antiparasitic Effects and Their Role in Ruminant Production Systems,” Proceedings of Nutritional Society, Vol. 63, No. 4, 2004, pp. 631-639. doi:10.1079/PNS2004396

[29]   I. Muller-Harvey and A. B. McAllan, “Tannins: Their Biochemistry and Nutritional Properties,” Advances in Plant Cell Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 1, 1992, pp. 151-217.

[30]   C. E. Taylor and A. F. Murant, “Nematicidal Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Rasperry Canes and Roots,” Nematologica, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1996, pp. 488-494. doi:10.1163/187529266X00310

[31]   S. Athanasiadou, I. Kyriazakis, F. Jackson and R. L. Coop, “Consequences of Long-Term Feeding with Condensed Tannin on Sheep Parasitized with Trichostrongylus Colubriformis,” International Journal of Parasitolog, Vol. 30, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1025-1033. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00083-7

[32]   S. Athanasiadou, I. Kyriazakis, F. Jackson and R. L. Coop, “Effect of Short-Term Exposure to Condensed Tannins on Adult Trichostrongylus Colubriformis,” Veterinary Research, Vol. 146, No. 25, 2000, pp. 728-732.

[33]   S. Athanasiadou, I. Kyriazakis, F. Jackson and R. L. Coop, “Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins towards Different Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep: In vitro and in vivo Studies,” Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 99, No. 3, 2001, pp. 205-219. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00467-8

[34]   V. Paolini, J. P. Bergeaud, C. Grisez and F. Prevot, Ph. Dorchies and H. Hoste, “Effect of Condensed Tannins on Goats Experimentally Infected with Haemonchus Contortus,” Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 113, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 253-261. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00064-5

[35]   A. Jabbar, M. A. Raza, Z. Iqbal and M. N. Khan, “An Inventory of the Ethnobotanicals Used as Anthelmintics in the Southern Punjab (Pakistan),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 108, No. 3, 2006, pp. 152-154. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.015

 
 
Top