FNS  Vol.3 No.6 , June 2012
Edible Seeds and Nuts Grown in Brazil as Sources of Protein for Human Nutrition
Abstract: Edible seeds and nuts can contribute to an adequate intake of protein, particularly in vegetable-based diets. However, there are relatively few reports with insufficient data regarding the protein quality of these foods, especially of edible seeds and nuts from Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and in vivo protein quality of two edible seeds (baru almond and peanut) and two nuts (Brazil nut and cashew nut) grown in Brazil. The proximate composition and the amino acid profile were analyzed. The true protein digestibility and the protein quality of these foods were evaluated by bioassay with male weanling Wistar rats over a period of 14 days, and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) was estimated. Edible seeds and nuts presented high contents of proteins (16.3 to 32.3 g/100g), lipids (42.7 to 57.9 g/100g) and dietary fibers (6.5 to 14.3 g/100g). Lysine was found to be the limiting amino acid in baru almond, peanut and Brazil nut, which had amino acid scores ranging from 71% to 76%. Cashew nut had no limiting amino acid. These foods showed high protein digestibility (around 90%) except for baru almond (75%), and their PDCAAS values varied significantly (57%, for baru almond, and 90%, for cashew nut). The edible seeds and nuts grown in Brazil provide a high density of energy and nutrients and they can be used as complementary sources of proteins.
Cite this paper: J. Freitas, D. Fernandes, L. Czeder, J. Lima, A. Sousa and M. Naves, "Edible Seeds and Nuts Grown in Brazil as Sources of Protein for Human Nutrition," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 857-862. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.36114.

[1]   W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens and M. J. Donoghue, “Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach,” Sunderland, 2002.

[2]   M. Venkatachalam and S. K. Sathe, “Chemical Composition of Selected Edible Nut Seeds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 13, 2006, pp. 4705-4714. doi:10.1021/jf0606959

[3]   IBGE, “Produ??o da Extra??o Vegetal e da Sivicultura”, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro, 2011.

[4]   T. N. Soares, L. J. Chaves, M. P. C. Telles and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho, “Landscape Conservation Genetics of Dipteryx alata (“baru” Tree: Fabaceae) from Cerrado Region of Central Brazil,” Genetica, Vol. 132, No. 1, 2008, pp. 9-19. doi:10.1007/s10709-007-9144-7

[5]   J. B. Freitas and M. M. V. Naves, “Composi??o Química de Nozes e Sementes Comestíveis e sua Rela??o com a Nutri??o e Saúde,” Revista de Nutri??o, Vol. 23 No. 2, 2010, pp. 269-279. doi:10.1590/S1415-52732010000200010

[6]   A. Toledo and B. Burlingame, “Biodiversity and Nutrition: A Common Path Toward Global Food Security and Sustainable Development,” Journal of Food Composition and Analyses, Vol. 19, No. 6-7, 2006, pp. 477-483. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2006.05.001

[7]   J. Yang, “Brazil Nuts and Associated Health Benefits: A Review,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1573-1580.

[8]   D. C. Fernandes, J. B. Freitas, L. P. Czeder and M. M. V. Naves, “Nutritional Composition and Protein Value of the Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) Almond from the Brazilian Savanna,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 90, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1650-1655. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3997

[9]   AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis,” Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, 1990.

[10]   FAO, “Amino-Acid Content of Foods and Biological Data on Proteins,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1970.

[11]   E. G. Bligh and W. J. Dyer, “A Rapid Method of Total Lipid Extraction and Purification,” Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 1959, pp. 911-917. doi:10.1139/o59-099

[12]   L. Prosky, N. Asp, T. F. Schweizer, J. W. Devries and I. Furda, “Determination of Insoluble, Soluble, and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products: Interlaboratory Study,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Vol. 71, No. 5, 1988, pp. 1017-1023.

[13]   A. L. Merril and B. K. Watt, “Energy Value of Foods: Basis and Derivation,” United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1973.

[14]   S. Moore, D. H. Spackman and W. H. Stein, “Chromatography of Amino Acids on Sulfonated Polystyrene Resins,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 30, No. 7, 1958, pp. 1185-1190.

[15]   B. Lucas and A. Sotelo, “Effect of Different Alkalies, Temperatures and Hydrolysis Times on Tryptophan Determination of Pure Proteins and Foods,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 109, No. 1, 1980, pp. 192-197. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(80)90028-7

[16]   WHO, Protein Quality Evaluation, “Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2007, pp. 93-102.

[17]   NRC, “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,” National Academy Press, Washington, 1996.

[18]   P. G. Reeves, F. N. Nielsen and G. C. Fahey, “AIN-93 Purified Diets for Laboratory Rodents: Final Report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc Writing Committee on the Reformulation of the AIN-76A Rodent Diet,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 123, No. 11, 1993, pp. 1939-1951.

[19]   M. Muggia-Sullam, L. E. Matarese, L. L. Edwards and J. E. Fischer, “Efficacy of Two Elemental Diets: A Pair Feeding Study,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1986, pp. 45-48. doi:10.1177/014860718601000145

[20]   FAO, “Protein Quality Evaluation,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1991.

[21]   M. Togashi and V. C. Sgarbieri, “Caracteriza??o Química Parcial do Fruto do Baru (Dipteryx alata, Vog.),” Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1994, pp. 8595.

[22]   R. M. Moraes and E. Angelucci, “Chemical Composition and Amino Acid Contents of Brazilian Beans,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1971, pp. 493-494. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1971.tb06396.x

[23]   G. Schaafsma, “The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, No. 7, 2000, pp. 1865-1867.

[24]   Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, “Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids,” National Academy Press, Washington, 2005.