JWARP  Vol.4 No.7 , July 2012
Biochemical Approach to Assess Groundwater Pollution by Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Case Skikda Algeria)
ABSTRACT
Due to the accelerated population growth and development in all sectors especially industry, more water has been pumped and more effluents have been rejected to the natural system. In the coastal Skikda Valley; Petrochemical industry is practiced along the year and almost groundwater are threatened. This work is referred to the characterization of the environmental hydrobiochemistry in the coastal petrochemical industrial area. The study has investigated the groundwater pollution by hydrocarbons using biochemical approach and assessing the nature and extent of contamination of groundwater in relation to petroleum industrial activities surrounding tank, channel and pipe. At site of this industrial zone, groundwater circulates on slight deep in the mio-pliocene alluviums (sand and gravel) which is characterized by an important permeability. Groundwater quality analysis proved that groundwater quality is largely polluted with respect to BOD5, COD, TPH and TSS. So, a narrow relationship between BOD and TPH and important qualitative degradation of the groundwater is shown, especially in the parts situated in the down gradient area and in direct proximity of tank, channel and pipe. The extent of groundwater contamination is influencing by the depth of the water table, permeability of the soil and therefore infiltration rate. In order to prevent further pollution of groundwater, oil must be stored and transported via impervious tank, pipe and channel. So, effluents must be treated prior to discharge.

Cite this paper
S. Labar, A. Hani and L. Djabri, "Biochemical Approach to Assess Groundwater Pollution by Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Case Skikda Algeria)," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2012, pp. 493-496. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47057.
References
[1]   F. Djaiz, “Contribution à l’Etude Petro-Structurale du Secteur de Bouchtata-Tamalous—Bordure Orientale du Socle de la Petite Kabylie (Algérie Nord—Orientale),” Université Mentouri Constantine, Algérie, Sciences & technologie D, No. 27, 2008, pp. 71-76.

[2]   O. Kolli, “Pb-Zn-Cu Mineralization in the Filfila Massif, Northeastern Algeria,” Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial SGA Meeting, Chapter 4-17, Beijing, 18-21 August 2005, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 417-420.

[3]   S. Labar, A. Hani, C. Cunningham and A. Younsi, “Pollution Control of Groundwater Whiting An Industrial Zone (Skikda, Algeria),” Proceedings of the Fourth Conference Watershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standars and TMDLS (Total Maximum Daily Load), San Antonio, 10-14 March 2007, pp. 264-270.

[4]   L. Mézédjri, A. TahharAli and A. B. Djebar, “Statistical Approach on the Impact of the Activity of Industrial Zone of Skikda on the Quality of the Waters of Saf-Saf Wadi (Skikda Algerian East Coasts),” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 20 No. 2, 2008, pp. 343-347.

[5]   H. Chaffai, R. Laouar, L. Djabri and A. Hani, “Eude de la Vulnérabilité à la Pollution des eaux de la Nappe Alluviale de Skikda: Application de la Méthode Drastic,” Bulletin du Service Géologique National, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2006, pp. 63-74.

[6]   AFNOR, “Eau, Méthodes d’Essai,” Association Francaise de Normalisation, Edition, Paris, 1989.

[7]   WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, Recommendations 1sAddendum, Geneva, 2006, 515 p.

[8]   L. Chery and C. Mouvet, “Prin Cipaux Processus Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques Intervenant dans l’Infiltration des Produits Polluants et leur Transfert vers les Eaux Souterraines,” La houille blanche, No. 718, 2000, pp. 82-88.

[9]   S. Labar, A. Hani and N. Zenati, “Approche de Caractérisation Bio-Physico-Chimique de la Pollution Industrielle (Cas des Unités de Transformation et de Conservation de la Tomate),” Proceedings of the 1er Séminaire International sur l’Environnement et ses Problèmes Connexes (SIEPC’2005), Béjaia, Algeria, 5-7 June 2005, p. 212.

[10]   H. N. MacFarland, C. E. Holdsworth, J. A. MacGregor, R. W. Call and M. L. Lane, “Applied Toxicology of PetroleumHydrocarbons,” In: Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 6, Princeton Scientific Publishers Inc, Princeton, 1984, p. 287.

[11]   A.A. Khan and M. M. Schuler, “Biochemical Toxicology of Oilfield Chemicals in Cattle,” In: G. E. Chalmers, Ed., A Literature Review and Discussion of the Toxicological Hazards of Oilfield Pollutants in Cattle, Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, 1997, pp. 149-161.

[12]   T. D. Bucheli and K. Fent. ”Induction of Cytochrome P450 as A biomarker of Environmental Contamination in Aquatic Ecosystems,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1995, pp. 201-268. doi:10.1080/10643389509388479

[13]   A. Khan, R. W. Coppock, M. M. Schuler and L. Geleta. “Biochemical Changes as Early Stage Systemic Biomarkers of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure in Rats,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 134, No. 1-3, 2002, pp. 195-200. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00188-1

 
 
Top