PSYCH  Vol.3 No.7 , July 2012
Theoretical Orientations of Turkish Counselor Trainees: The Role of Thinking Styles, Epistemology and Curiosity
Counselors vary in personality traits, worldviews, epistemic values, cognitive s, and developmental influences, and these variations in return effect their choice of a guiding theory. This study addresses the variables associated with the theoretical orientations of Turkish psychological counseling students. Participants completed measures of curiosity, thinking s, epistemological beliefs and a questionnaire on their theoretical choices. Three separate discriminant analysis were conducted to understand which variables differentiate between theoretical orientations. Results of the discriminant analysis revealed that conservative and liberal thinking s and absorption dimension of curiosity differentiated between theoretical orientations.

Cite this paper
Demir, I. & Gazioglu, E. (2012). Theoretical Orientations of Turkish Counselor Trainees: The Role of Thinking Styles, Epistemology and Curiosity. Psychology, 3, 527-533. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.37077.
[1]   Ainley, M., Hidi, S., & Berndorff, D. (2002). Interest, learning and the psychological processes that mediate their relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 545-561. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.545

[2]   Arthur, A. R. (2000). The personality and cognitive-epistemological traits of cognitive-behavioural and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 243-257. doi:10.1348/000711200160453

[3]   Arthur, A. R. (2001). Personality, epistemology, and psychotherapists’ choice of theoretical model: A review and analysis. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling, and Health, 4, 45-64. doi:10.1080/13642530110040082

[4]   Babbage, D. R., & Ronan, K. R. (2000) Philosophical worldview and personality factors in traditional and social scientists: Studying the world in our own image. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 405-420. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00117-8

[5]   Baruth L. G., & Huber, C. H. (1985). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theoretical analyses and skills application. Columbus: Merrill Publication.

[6]   Bitar, G. W., Bean, R. A., & Bermudez, J. M. (2007). Theoretical orientation development: A grounded theory pilot study. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 109-121. doi:10.1080/01926180600553407

[7]   Brabeck, M. M., & Welfel, E. R. (1985). Counseling theory: Understanding the trend toward eclecticism from a developmental perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development, 63, 343-348. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1985.tb02714.x

[8]   Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. R. (1999). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories Corey and interventions. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

[9]   Coleman, D. (2004). Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (TEST): A preliminary validation study. Social Work Research, 28, 117-128. doi:10.1093/swr/28.2.117

[10]   Consoli, A. J., & Williams, L. M. (1999). Commonalities in values among mental health counselors. Counseling & Values, 43, 106-116. doi:10.1002/j.2161-007X.1999.tb00133.x

[11]   Conway, J. B. (1988). Differences among clinical psychologists: Scientists, practitioners, and scientist-practitioners. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 642-655. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.19.6.642

[12]   Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks-Cole.

[13]   Cummings, N. A., & Lucchese, G. (1978). Adoption of a psychological orientation: The role of the inadvertent. Psychotherapy: Theory. Research, and Practice, 15, 323-328. doi:10.1037/h0086022

[14]   De Shazer, S. (1994). Words were originally magic. New York: Norton.

[15]   Deryakulu, D., & Buyukozturk, S. (2002). Epistemolojik inanc olce- ginin gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [The validity and reliability study of Epistemological Belief Scale]. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 2, 111-125.

[16]   Fear, R., & Woolfe, R. (1999). The personal and professional development of the counsellor: The relationship between personal philosophy and theoretical orientation. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 12, 253-262. doi:10.1080/09515079908254095

[17]   Fer, S. (2005). Dusunme stilleri envanterinin gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [The validity and reliability study of thinking styles inventory]. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 5, 433-461.

[18]   Freeman, M. S., Hayes, B. G., Kuch, T. H., & Taub, G. (2007). Personality: A predictor of theoretical orientation of students enrolled in a counseling theories course. Counselor Education & Supervision, 46, 254-265. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6978.2007.tb00030.x

[19]   Hair, J., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[20]   Heffler, B., & Sandler, R. (2009). The role of learning style in choosing one’s therapeutic orientation. Psychotherapy Research, 19, 283-292. doi:10.1080/10503300902806673

[21]   Garfield, S. L., & Bergin, A. E. (1994). Introduction and historical overview. In A. E. Bergin, & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley.

[22]   Gulerce, A. (2008). On the absence of a presence/the presence of an absence: Psychoanalysis in the Turkish context. Theory & Psychology, 18, 237-251. doi:10.1177/0959354307087884

[23]   Hummel, A. M. (2009). How one helps: Personality, theoretical orientation, and helping skill preference. Ph.D. Thesis, Maryland: Maryland University.

[24]   Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, J. M., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective. CA: Sage Publication.

[25]   Kashdan, T. B., Rose, P., & Fincham, F. D. (2004). Curiosity and exploration: Facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 291- 305. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8203_05

[26]   Kelly, E. W. (1995). Counselor values: A national survey. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73, 648-653. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01810.x

[27]   Lyddon, W. J. (1989). Root metaphor theory: A philosophical framework for counselling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 442-448. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02113.x

[28]   Lyddon, W. J., & Adamson, L. A. (1992). Worldview and counseling preference: An analogue study. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 41-47. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb02169.x

[29]   Mahalik, J. R. (1995). Practitioners’ value-orientation: Examination of core values and influence of theoretical orientation. Counseling and Values, 39, 228-239. doi:10.1002/j.2161-007X.1995.tb00945.x

[30]   Mahoney, M. J., & Gabriel, T. J. (1987). Psychotherapy and the cognitive sciences: An evolving alliance. Journal of cognitive Therapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 39-59.

[31]   Mahoney, M. J., Lyddon, W. J., & Alford, D. J. (1989). An evaluation of the rational-emotive theory of psychotherapy. In M. E. Berbard & R. DiGiuseppe (Eds.), Inside rational-emotive therapy: A critical appraisal of the theory and therapy of Albert Ellis (pp. 69-94). New York: Academic Press.

[32]   Miller, S. D., Hubble, M. A., Duncan, B. L. (1996). Handbook of Solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

[33]   Murdock., N. L., Banta, J., Stromseth, J., Viene, D., & Brown, T. M. (1998). Joining the club: Factors related to choice of theoretical orientation. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 11, 63-77. doi:10.1080/09515079808254043

[34]   Murdock, N. (2007). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy a case approach. London: Prentice Hall.

[35]   Neimeyer, G. J., Prichard, S., Lyddon, W. J., & Sherrard, P. A. D. (1993). The role of epistemic style in counseling preference and orientation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 515-523.

[36]   Norcross, J. C. (1985). In defense of theoretical orientations for clinicians. The Clinical Psychologist, 38, 13-17.

[37]   Ogunfowora, B., & Drapeau, M. (2008). A study of the relationship between personality traits and theoretical orientation preferences. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 8, 151-159. doi:10.1080/14733140802193218

[38]   Oztep, ?. (1998). Psikoterapistlerin ki?ilikleri ile teorik y?nelimleri aras?ndaki ili?ki. [Relationship between psychotherapists’ personality and theoretical orientations]. Masters Dissertation, Istanbul: Istanbul University.

[39]   Poznanski, J. J., & McLennan, J. (1995). Conceptualizing and measuring counselors’ theoretical orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 411-422. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.42.4.411

[40]   Poznanski, J. J., & McLennan, J. (2003). Becoming a psychologist with a particular theoretical orientation to counseling practice. Australian Psychologist, 38, 223-226. doi:10.1080/00050060310001707247

[41]   Rigazio-DiGilio, S. A. (2001). Postmodern theories of counseling. In D. C. Locke, J. E. Meyers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.). The handbook of counseling (pp. 197-218). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[42]   Rogers, C. (1980). A way of being. Palo Alto, CA: Houghton Mifflin.

[43]   Scandell, D. J., Wlazelek, B. G., & Scandell, R. S. (1997). Personality of the therapist and theoretical orientation. Irish Journal of Psychology, 18, 413-418.

[44]   Scragg, P., Bor, R., & Watts, M. (1999). The influence of personality and theoretical models on applicants to a counselling psychology course: A preliminary study. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12, 263-270. doi:10.1080/09515079908254096

[45]   Seligman, L., & Reichenberg, L. W. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies, and skills (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

[46]   Sharf, R. S. (2000). The theories of psychotherapy and counseling (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

[47]   Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.3.498

[48]   Schommer, M. (1993). Comparisons of beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning among postsecondary students. Research in Higher Education, 34, 355-370. doi:10.1007/BF00991849

[49]   Schmidt, E. A. (2001). Dismantling eclecticism: Choosing, understanding, and implementing a legitimate theory of counseling. Texas Counseling Association Journal, 29, 96-103.

[50]   Schwartz, B. D. (1978). The initial versus subsequent theoretical positions: Does the psychotherapist's personality make a difference? Psy- chotherapy: Theory. Research & Practice, 15, 344-349. doi:10.1037/h0086025

[51]   Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking styles. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[52]   Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). Thinking styles inventory, Unpublished test. Yale: Yale University.

[53]   Tremblay, J. M., Herron, W. G., & Schultz, C. L. (1986). Relation between therapeutic orientation and personality in psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 106-110. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.17.2.106

[54]   Vasco, A. B., Garcia-Marques, L., & Dryden, W. (1993). Psychotherapist know thyself!”: Dissonance between metatheoretical and personal values in psychotherapists of different theoretical orientations. Psychology Research, 3, 181-196.

[55]   Walton, D. E. (1978). An exploratory study: Personality factors and theoretical orientations of therapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 15, 390-395. doi:10.1037/h0086033

[56]   Warner, .E. (1991). Canadian university counsellors: A survey of theoretical orientations and other related descriptors. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 25, 33-37.

[57]   Watts, R. E. (1993). Developing a personal theory of counseling: A brief guide for students. TCA Journal, 2, 103-104.

[58]   Worthington, R. L. & Dillon, F. R. (2003). The theoretical orientation profile scale-revised: A validation study. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 36, 95-105.

[59]   Young, M. E. (1993). Theoretical trends in counselling: A national survey. Guidance & Counseling, 9, 4-10.

[60]   Zachar, P., & Leong, F. T. L. (1992). A problem of personality: Scientist and practitioner differences in psychology. Journal of Personality, 60, 665-677. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00925.x

[61]   Zhang, L. F., & Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Are learning approaches and thinking styles related? A study in two Chinese populations. Journal of Psychology, 134, 469-489. doi:10.1080/00223980009598230