ABSTRACT Grape seed extracts (GSE) are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negative control, the 2nd group (positive control group), the rats were injected (i.p.) with subacute dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day) of lead acetate (LA). The 3rd group (protective group), the rats were injected (i.p.) with LA (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for 7 days after treatment with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for 3 weeks. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups (therapeutics groups), rats were injected (i.p.) with subacut dose (100 mg/kg b·w/day) of lead acetate for 7 days, then treated with GSE (100 mg/kg b·w/day) for one, two and three weeks, respectively. The level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) were evaluated in brain regions (cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus). The result indicated that the administration of subacute dose of LA (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) induce a significant decrease in NE, DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in all tested brain regions. Also the obtained data showed significant increase in liver enzymes: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in group 2 (positive control). There is an improvement in neurotransmitters content. Also the obtained data showed significant in- crease in liver enzymes of protective (G3) and therapeutics groups (G4, G5 and G6) which received GSE compared with animal group that received lead acetate (G2). This is may be the presence of proanthocyanidins and procyanidins which have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The result suggests that grape seed extract may prevent lead-induced neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
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