ABSTRACT The potential of modified multiwallcd carbon nanotubes, as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the simultaneous separation and preconcentration of zinc and thallium has been investigated. Zinc and thallium were adsorbed quantitatively onto modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the pH range of 3 - 6.5. Parameters influencing the simultaneous preconcentration of Zn(II) and Tl(I) ions such as pH of the sample, sample and eluent flow rate, type and volume of elution solution and interfering ions, have been examined and optimized. Linearity was maintained between 0.1 to 20.0 μg?mL–1 for thallium and 20.0 ng?mL–1 to 5.0 μg?mL–1 for zinc in the final solution. The defection limits based on three times the standard deviation of the blank signal (n = 8) for thallium and zinc were 5.1 and 1.4 ng?mL–1, respectively. Seven replicate determination of a mixture of 5.0 and 0.2 μg?mL–1 of thallium and zinc in the final solution gave a mean absorbance of 0.085 and 0.074 with relative standard deviation 1.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of zinc and thallium in biological and water sample with satisfactory results.
Cite this paper
S. Mohammadi, "Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Zinc and Thallium in Different Matrixes after Solid Phase Extraction on Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2012, pp. 371-377. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2012.35049.
 L. Willis, P. Thureen, J. Kaufman, E. Wymore, H. Skillman and E. da Cruz, “Removal of Copper Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Kaolinite and Batch Design,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 153, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 867-876. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.047
 T. Kocaoba and T. Akyuz, “Effects of Conditioning of Sepiolite Prior to Cobalt and Nickel Removal,” Desalination, Vol. 181, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 313-318.
 B. Rezaei, E. Sadeghi and S. Meghdadi, “Nano-Level Determination of Copper with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Pre-Concentration on N,N-(4-methyl-1,2- phenylene)diquinoline-2-carboxamide-naphthalene,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 168, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 787-792. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.077
 T. Madrakian, M. A. Zolfigol and M. Solgi, “Solid-Phase Extraction Method for Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Some Metal Ions in Environmental Samples Using Silica Gel Modified by 2,4,6-Trimorpholino-1,3,5-tria- zin,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 160, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 468-472. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.021
 A. Tobiasz, S. Walas, B. Trzewik, P. Grzybek, M. M. Zaitz, M., Gawin and H. Mrowiec, “Cu(II)-Imprinted Styrene-Divinylbenzene Beads as a New Sorbent for Flow Injection-Flame Atomic Absorption Determination of Copper,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2009, pp. 87-92. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2009.05.002
 M. Burguera and J. L. Burguera, “On-Line Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Configurations: Recent Developments and Trends,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 62, No. 9, 2007, pp.884-896.
 A. Sabarudin, N. Lenghor, M. Oshima, L. Hakini, T. Takayanagi, Y. H. Gao and S. Motomizua, “On-Line Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Configurations: Recent Developments and Trends,” Talanta, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1609-1617.
 A. Ramesh, K. R. Mohan and K. Sshaiah, “On-Line Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Configura- tions: Recent Developments and Trends,” Talanta, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2002, pp. 243-252.
 A. Duran, T. Tuzen and M. Soylak, “Preconcentration of Some Trace Elements via Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Solid Phase Extraction Adsorbent,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 169, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 466-471. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.119
 Z. K. Wang, et al., “Vaporization and Ionization of Laser Ablation Generated Aerosols in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer—Implications from Ion Distribution Maps,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 21, 2006, pp. 1143-1151.
 M. Soylak and M. Tuzen, “Coprecipitation of Gold(III), Palladium(II) and Lead(II) for Their Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determinations,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 152, No. 2, 2008, pp. 656-661.
 A. N. Anthemidis, D. G. Themelis and J. A. Stratis, “Stopped-Flow Injection Liquid-Liquid Extraction Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium in Airborne Particulate Matter and Automobile Catalysts,” Talanta, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2001, pp. 37-43.
 L. Pan, Y. R. Qin, B. Hu and Z. C. Jiang, “Determination of Nickel and Palladium in Environmental Samples by Low Temperature ETV-ICP-OES Coupled with Liquid- Liquid Extraction with Dimethylglyoxime as Both Extractant and Chemical Modifier,” Chemical Research of Chinese University, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007, pp. 399-403.
 S. Z. Mohammadi, D. Afzali and D. Pourtalebi, “Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Palladium, Gold and Nickel after Cloud Point Extraction1,” Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 66, No. 7, 2011, pp. 620-625.
 D. Afzali, M. A. Taher, A. Mostafavi and S. Z. Mohammadi Mobarakeh, “Thermal Modified Kaolinite as Useful Material for Separation and Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Manganese Ions,” Talanta, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2005, pp. 476-480. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2004.06.027
 M. A.Taher, B. K. Puri and R. K. Bansal, “Simultaneous Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Real and Environmental Samples by Differential Pulse Polarography after Adsorption of Their 2-Nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid-Tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium Ion-Associated Complex on Microcrystalline Naphthalene,” Micro-chemical Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1, 1998, pp. 21-30.
 A. Shokrollalii, M. Ghaedi, O. Hossaini, N. Khanjari and M. Soylak, “Cloud Point Extraction and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Combination for Copper(II) Ion in Environmental and Biological Samples,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 160, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 435- 440. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.016
 S. Candir, I. Narin, and M. Soylak, “Ligandless Cloud Point Extraction of Cr(III), Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Bi(III), and Cd(II) Ions in Environmental Samples with tween 80 and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination,” Talanta, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2008, pp. 289-293.
 L. Elci, A. A. Kartal and M. Soylak, “Solid Phase Extraction Method for the Determination of Iron, Lead and Chromium by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Amberite XAD-2000 Column in Various Water Samples,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 153, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 454-461. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.08.075
 S. Iijima, “Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon,” Nature, Vol. 354, No. 6348, 1991, pp. 56-58.
 S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, “Single-Shell Carbon Nano-tubes of 1-nm Diameter,” Nature, Vol. 363, No. 6430, 1993, pp. 603-605. doi:10.1038/363603a0
 Y. Li, S. Wang, A. Cao, D. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. Xu, Z. Luan, D. Ruan, J. Liang, D. Wu and B. Wei, “Adsorption of Fluoride from Water by Amorphous Alumina Supported on Carbon Nanotubes,” Chemical Physical Letters, Vol. 350, No. 5-6, 2001, pp. 412-416.
 Y. Li, S. Wang, J. Wa, X. Zhang, C. Xu, Z. Luan and D. Wu, “Lead Adsorption on Carbon Nanotubes,” Chemical Physical Letters, Vol. 357, No. 3-4, 2002, pp. 263-266.
 Y. Li, S. Wang, Z. Luan, J. Ding, C. Xu and D. Wu, “Adsorption of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solution by Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes,” Carbon, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1057-1062.
 D. Afzali and A. Mostafavi, “Potential of Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2- naphtol as a New Solid Sorbent for the Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Cobalt(II) Ion,” Analytical Science, Vol. 24, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1135-1139.
 D. Du, M. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Cai, H. Tu and A. Zhang, “Application of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Solid-Phase Extraction of Organophosphate Pesticide,” Electro-chemical Communication, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2008, pp. 85-89.
 G. Z. Fang, J. X. He and S. Wang, “Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Sorbent for On-Line Coupling of Solid-Phase Extraction to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Simultaneous Determination of 10 Sulfonamides in Eggs and Pork,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1127, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 12-17.
 J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Xian, L. Jin and K. Tanaka, “Preparation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Film Modified Electrode and Its Application to Si-multaneous Determination of Oxidizable Amino Acids in Ion Chromatography,” Talanta, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1123-1130.
 N. J. K. Simpson, “Solid Phase Extraction: Principles, Techniques and Applications,” Marcel Decker, New York, 2000. doi:10.1201/9781420056242
 Z. Mester and R. Sturgeon, “Sample Preparation for Trace Element Analysis,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003.
 M. Ghaedi, H. Tavallali, A. Shokrol-lahi, M. Zahedi, M. Montazerozohori and M. Soylak, “Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Zinc, Nickel, Iron and Lead in Different Matrixes after Solid Phase Extraction on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Coated Alumina as Their Bis (2-Hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-Propanedimine Chelates,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 166, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 1441-1448.
 M. Ghaedi, K. Ni-knam, A. Shokrollahi, B. Niknath, H. R. Rajabi and M. Soylak, “Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Heavy Me- tal Ions after Solid Phase Extrac-tion Using Modified Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Coated on Alu-mina,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 155, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 121- 127. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.038
 C. C. Nascentes, M. Y. Kamogawa, K. G. Fernandes, M. A. Z. Arruda, A. R. A. Nogueira and L. A. Nobreg, “Direct Determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Beer by Thermospray Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 60, No. 5, 2005, pp. 749-753.
 M. Ghaedi, K. Niknam, A. Shokrollahi, E. Niknam, H. Ghaedi and M. Soylak, “A Solid Phase Extraction Procedure for Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ Ions on 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d] Imidazole Loaded on Triton X-100-Coated Polyvinyl Chloride,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 158, No. 1, 2008, pp. 131-136.
 J. S. Carletto, K. C. Di Pietro Roux, H. F. Maltez, E. Martendal and E. Carasek, “Use of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-chitosan Chelating Resin in an Auto-mated On-Line Pre-concentration System for Determination of Zinc(II) by F AAS,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 157, No. 1, 2008, pp. 88-93. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.12.083
 S. Dadfarnia, T. As-sadolkhi and A. M. Haji Shabani, “Speciation and Determination of Thallium by On-Line Microcolumn Separation/Preconcentration by Flow Injection-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Immobilized Oxine as Sorbent,” Journal of Hazardous Material, Vol. 148, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 446-452.
 M. Fouladgar and A. A. Ensafi, “A Novel Optical Chemical Sensor for Thallium(III) Determination Using 4-(5- Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)-phenol,” Sensor and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 143, No. 2, 2010, pp. 590- 594. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.09.057
 N. Spano, A. Panzanelli, P. P. Costantina, M. I. Pilo, G. Sanna, R. Seeber and A. Tapparo, “Anodic Stripping Vol-tammetric Determination of Traces and Ultratraces of Thallium at a Graphite Microelectrode: Method Development and Application to Environmental Waters”, Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 553, No. 1-2, pp. 201-207.
 S. M. Maia, M. G. R. Vale, B. Welz and A. J. Curtius, “Feasibility of Isotope Dilution Calibration for the Determination of Thallium in Sediment Using Slurry Sampling Electrothermal Vaporization Induc-tively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B, Vol. 56, No. 7, 2001, pp. 1263-1275.