Study on Correlation of Tidal Forces with Global Great Earthquakes

Affiliation(s)

Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province, Kunming, China.

National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Seismological Bureau of Yunnan Province, Kunming, China.

National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

ABSTRACT

The correlation between the celestial tidal forces and earthquakes has been a controversial problem, although its research history is very long. This paper analyzes the relation between the tidal forces and all the earthquakes of magnitudes no less than 7.0 which occurred in the entire world from year 1900.0 to 2000.0 by calculating tidal forces and the run tests which yields the runs of earthquakes near the extreme and non-extreme values of the tidal forces. It is shown that the occurrence of an earthquake is relevant to the tidal forces. From the analysis of the relation between the ecliptic longitudes of the lunar ascending node and the seismic activities of the principal seismic belts and regions in the world, it is also shown that the lunar node tide is possibly one of the important astronomical contributing factors of the seismic activities there. The results enrich and support the relevant study of the relation between celestial tidal forces and earthquakes.

The correlation between the celestial tidal forces and earthquakes has been a controversial problem, although its research history is very long. This paper analyzes the relation between the tidal forces and all the earthquakes of magnitudes no less than 7.0 which occurred in the entire world from year 1900.0 to 2000.0 by calculating tidal forces and the run tests which yields the runs of earthquakes near the extreme and non-extreme values of the tidal forces. It is shown that the occurrence of an earthquake is relevant to the tidal forces. From the analysis of the relation between the ecliptic longitudes of the lunar ascending node and the seismic activities of the principal seismic belts and regions in the world, it is also shown that the lunar node tide is possibly one of the important astronomical contributing factors of the seismic activities there. The results enrich and support the relevant study of the relation between celestial tidal forces and earthquakes.

Cite this paper

Y. Su, H. Fu and H. Hu, "Study on Correlation of Tidal Forces with Global Great Earthquakes,"*International Journal of Geosciences*, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 373-378. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.32041.

Y. Su, H. Fu and H. Hu, "Study on Correlation of Tidal Forces with Global Great Earthquakes,"

References

[1] N. R. Goutly, “Tidal Triggering of Deep Moonquakes,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1979, pp. 52-58.

[2] M. N. Toksoz, “Lunar and Planetary Seismology,” Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1975, pp. 306-311. doi:10.1029/RG013i003p00306

[3] X. P. Wu, et al., “Statistical Analysis of Tidal Stress Effect on Seismic Faults,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 42, 1999, pp. 65-74.

[4] S. Shlien, “Earthquake-Tide Correlation,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1972, pp. 27-34. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1972.tb06108.x

[5] H. Tsuruoda, M. ohtake and H. Sato, “Statistical Test of the Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes: Contribution of the Ocean Tide Loading Effect,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 122, No. 1 1995, pp. 183-194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb03546.x

[6] P. R. Du, “18.6 Years Seismic Cycle and the Preliminary Exploration for Its Cause,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1994, pp. 362-369.

[7] T. H. Heat?n, “Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 72, No. 6, 1982, pp. 2181-2200.

[8] M. Souriau, A. Souriau and J. Gagnepain, “Modeling and Detecting Interactions between Earth Tides and Earthquakes with Application to an Aftershock Sequence in the Pyrenees,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1982, pp. 165-180.

[9] G. B. Peng and W. Lu, “The 4th Sort of Natural Factors of the Climate,” Science Press, Beijing, 1983.

[10] J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, “Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures,” 1971.

[11] E. R. Engdahl and A. Villasenor, “Global Seismicity: 1900-19990[A],” In: H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, et al., Eds., International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part A, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0074-6142(02)80244-3

[12] Z. L. Shi, “The World’s Earthquake Catalogue,” Seismolog Press, Beijing, 1981.

[13] S. Z. Hong, “Application of the Optimum Section to Seismic instalments,” Northewest Seismology Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1984, pp. 49-57.

[14] G. M. Zhang and L. M. Gen, “Computer Simulation Study of the Recurrent Activities of the Strong Earthquakes in Chinese Mainland,” Earthquake Research in China, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1993, pp. 20-22.

[15] B. X. Gao, “Principle of Astro-Geodynamics,” Science Press, Beijing, 1997, pp. 31-50.

[16] H. Hu and X. M. Li, “Research on Correlation of Positions of Celestial Objects with Earthquakes,” Natural Hazards, Vol. 23, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 339-348.

[17] Y. Chen and P. J. Shi, “Natural Disaster,” Beijing Normal University Press, Beijing, 1996, pp. 70-71.

[18] X. C. Jin, “Theory of Structure of the Plates,” Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 1981, p. 310.

[19] GINSB, “Seismic-Tectonic Map of Europ-Asia,” Map Press, Beijing, 1981.

[20] G. W. Moore, “Plate-Tectonic Map of the Circum-Pacific Region,” The America Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1982.

[21] D. D. McCarthy Ed., “IERS Standards,” IERS Technical Note 3, Observatoire de Paris, 1989, pp. 1-77.

[22] P. Melchior, “The Tides of the Planet Earth,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978.

[23] J. Fang, “Solid Earth Tides,” Science Press, Beijing, 1984.

[24] Z. J. Guo, et al., “Earth—Atmosphere Coupling and Natural Disasters Forecast,” Seismological Press, Beijing, 1996.

[25] F. W. Klein, “Earthquakes Warms and the Semidiurnal Solid Tide,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1979, pp. 245-295.

[26] D. Young and W. Zurn, “Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes in the Swabian Jura?” Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1976, pp. 171-182.

[27] A. Palumbo, “Lunar and Solar Tidal Components in the Occurrence of Earthquake in Italy,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1986, pp. 93-99. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1986.tb04346.x

[28] P. A. Rydelek, I. S. Sacks and R. Scarpa, “On Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes at Campi Flegrei, Italy,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 109, No. 1, 1992, pp. 125-147.

[29] X. M. Gao, et al., “Triggering of Earthquakes by the Tidal Stress Tensor,” Acta Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1981, pp. 264-275.

[30] J. Zhao, Y. B. Han and Z. A. Li, “Variation in the Solar and Lunar Tide Raising Forces and Earthquakes in Taiwan,” Journal of Natural Disasters, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 137-141.

[31] L. D. Chen, “Cerebration of the Scientific Guide Lines, Methodology and Difficulties in Earthquake Prediction,” Seismological Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1996, pp. 67-74.

[32] P. R. Du and D. Y. Xu, “Astroseismologic Introduction,” Seismological Press, Beijing, 1979.

[33] J. Q. Luan, “Motion of Celestial Object and Long-Term Prediction of Weather and Earthquakes,” Beijing Normal University Press, Beijing, 1988.

[1] N. R. Goutly, “Tidal Triggering of Deep Moonquakes,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1979, pp. 52-58.

[2] M. N. Toksoz, “Lunar and Planetary Seismology,” Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1975, pp. 306-311. doi:10.1029/RG013i003p00306

[3] X. P. Wu, et al., “Statistical Analysis of Tidal Stress Effect on Seismic Faults,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 42, 1999, pp. 65-74.

[4] S. Shlien, “Earthquake-Tide Correlation,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1972, pp. 27-34. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1972.tb06108.x

[5] H. Tsuruoda, M. ohtake and H. Sato, “Statistical Test of the Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes: Contribution of the Ocean Tide Loading Effect,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 122, No. 1 1995, pp. 183-194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb03546.x

[6] P. R. Du, “18.6 Years Seismic Cycle and the Preliminary Exploration for Its Cause,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1994, pp. 362-369.

[7] T. H. Heat?n, “Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 72, No. 6, 1982, pp. 2181-2200.

[8] M. Souriau, A. Souriau and J. Gagnepain, “Modeling and Detecting Interactions between Earth Tides and Earthquakes with Application to an Aftershock Sequence in the Pyrenees,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1982, pp. 165-180.

[9] G. B. Peng and W. Lu, “The 4th Sort of Natural Factors of the Climate,” Science Press, Beijing, 1983.

[10] J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, “Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures,” 1971.

[11] E. R. Engdahl and A. Villasenor, “Global Seismicity: 1900-19990[A],” In: H. K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, et al., Eds., International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part A, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0074-6142(02)80244-3

[12] Z. L. Shi, “The World’s Earthquake Catalogue,” Seismolog Press, Beijing, 1981.

[13] S. Z. Hong, “Application of the Optimum Section to Seismic instalments,” Northewest Seismology Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1984, pp. 49-57.

[14] G. M. Zhang and L. M. Gen, “Computer Simulation Study of the Recurrent Activities of the Strong Earthquakes in Chinese Mainland,” Earthquake Research in China, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1993, pp. 20-22.

[15] B. X. Gao, “Principle of Astro-Geodynamics,” Science Press, Beijing, 1997, pp. 31-50.

[16] H. Hu and X. M. Li, “Research on Correlation of Positions of Celestial Objects with Earthquakes,” Natural Hazards, Vol. 23, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 339-348.

[17] Y. Chen and P. J. Shi, “Natural Disaster,” Beijing Normal University Press, Beijing, 1996, pp. 70-71.

[18] X. C. Jin, “Theory of Structure of the Plates,” Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 1981, p. 310.

[19] GINSB, “Seismic-Tectonic Map of Europ-Asia,” Map Press, Beijing, 1981.

[20] G. W. Moore, “Plate-Tectonic Map of the Circum-Pacific Region,” The America Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1982.

[21] D. D. McCarthy Ed., “IERS Standards,” IERS Technical Note 3, Observatoire de Paris, 1989, pp. 1-77.

[22] P. Melchior, “The Tides of the Planet Earth,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978.

[23] J. Fang, “Solid Earth Tides,” Science Press, Beijing, 1984.

[24] Z. J. Guo, et al., “Earth—Atmosphere Coupling and Natural Disasters Forecast,” Seismological Press, Beijing, 1996.

[25] F. W. Klein, “Earthquakes Warms and the Semidiurnal Solid Tide,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1979, pp. 245-295.

[26] D. Young and W. Zurn, “Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes in the Swabian Jura?” Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1976, pp. 171-182.

[27] A. Palumbo, “Lunar and Solar Tidal Components in the Occurrence of Earthquake in Italy,” Geophysical Journal. Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1986, pp. 93-99. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1986.tb04346.x

[28] P. A. Rydelek, I. S. Sacks and R. Scarpa, “On Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes at Campi Flegrei, Italy,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 109, No. 1, 1992, pp. 125-147.

[29] X. M. Gao, et al., “Triggering of Earthquakes by the Tidal Stress Tensor,” Acta Seismologica Sinica, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1981, pp. 264-275.

[30] J. Zhao, Y. B. Han and Z. A. Li, “Variation in the Solar and Lunar Tide Raising Forces and Earthquakes in Taiwan,” Journal of Natural Disasters, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 137-141.

[31] L. D. Chen, “Cerebration of the Scientific Guide Lines, Methodology and Difficulties in Earthquake Prediction,” Seismological Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1996, pp. 67-74.

[32] P. R. Du and D. Y. Xu, “Astroseismologic Introduction,” Seismological Press, Beijing, 1979.

[33] J. Q. Luan, “Motion of Celestial Object and Long-Term Prediction of Weather and Earthquakes,” Beijing Normal University Press, Beijing, 1988.