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 OJEMD  Vol.2 No.2 , May 2012
Aspirin and Blood Glucose and Insulin Resistance
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high because either absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Treatment of diabetes involves diet, exercise, education and for most people, drugs. Oral antidiabetic drugs and/or insulin doses may be affected by co-administration of many drugs including aspirin. Dose adjustments may be necessary. The pain killer effect of aspirin is best known for its effects on the two cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1 & COX2), but, recently, aspirin could specifically inhibit the protein I-kappa-β-kinase beta (IKK-beta). This kinase is used for its role in the cascade of signals that activate the nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-kappa-B) family of cellular genes which regulate inflammatory and immune responses. Now, it turns out that IKK-beta also works in another pathway to contribute to insulin resistance by interfering with insulin signaling. Objective: In view of the recent rodent data demonstrating a potentially important role of IKKβ in mediating insulin resistance and the ability of salicylates to inhibit IKKβ activity, we decided to examine the role of different doses of aspirin (low, moderate and high) in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: DM in rats were induced by administration of nicotinamide (NAD), 15 min prior to the single dose of streptozotocin STZ i.p. Ninety male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into 6 main groups. The first was served as control which receives no medications. The second group was diabetic induced rats as mentioned above. The third group was controlled by insulin after induction of D.M. Groups from the fourth to the six consist of 20 diabetic induced rats and further subdivided into rats taking either aspirin alone in different doses (low, moderate or high) or aspirin and insulin. At the end of the protocol, fasting blood sugar level (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c%), total serum proteins, C-peptide, lipid profile and C-reactive proteins were measured. Results: Different doses of aspirin showed that moderate and to a greater extent high dose aspirin administration to diabetic rats have greater impact on fasting blood glucose levels whether treated with insulin or not. Again, HBA1c% in diabetic rats treated with insulin and receiving HDA was lower than diabetic rats treated with insulin only or even taking LDA in addition. On the contrary, different doses of aspirin (LDA, MDA&HDA) administration to diabetic rats have no any influence on HBA1c% as compared to normal non-diabetic rats. TGs in diabetic rats receiving MDA alone was elevated as compared to normal non-diabetic rats. Again, moderate and HDA in diabetic rats not taking insulin had high TGs level as compared to diabetic rats treated with insulin only. Conclusion: The study concluded that the inflammatory pathways hold a substantial part in insulin resistance in type 2 DM. The influence of salicylate compounds on insulin sensitivity is multifactorial especially in high doses, and involves both beneficial and deleterious effects depending on the species and experimental model studied.
Cite this paper: S. H. Hammadi, S. S. AL-Ghamdi, A. I. Yassien and S. D. AL-Hassani, "Aspirin and Blood Glucose and Insulin Resistance," Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 16-26. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.22003.
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