ABSTRACT The overzealous and indiscriminate use of most of the synthetic fungicides has created different types of environmental and toxicological problems. Recently, in different parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutants in plant protection. The popularity of botanical pesticides is once again increasing and some plant products are being used globally as green pesticides. Pyrethroids and neem products are well established commercially as botanical pesticides and recently some essential oils of higher plants have also been used as antimicrobials against storage pests because of their relatively safe status and wide acceptance by the consumers. Some of the volatile oils, which often contain the principal aromatic and flavouring components of herbs and spices, have been recommended as plant based antimicrobials to retard microbial contamination and reduction in spoilage of food commodities. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical pesticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and post harvest protection of food products in developing countries.
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