Back
 APE  Vol.2 No.2 , May 2012
Effects of Habitual Low-Impact Dance on the Balance and Torque of the Knees of Older Female Individuals
Abstract: Backgroud: Despite of many people engaging in aerobic dance activities, little knowledge was reported regarding the effects of low-impact dance on the balance, torque and range of motion (ROM) of joints of the lower extremities. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether any differences existed in terms of the aforementioned variables between older females who regularly engaged in low-impact dance and those who were physically inactive. Method: In total, 38 older females comprised the subjects of this study, which consisted of a dance group (DG) and a control group (CG). The extension torque of the knees, dynamic and static balance, and ROMs of the hip and ankles of all participants were measured. Results: Dynamic balance in the DG was significantly higher than that in the CG (13.0 ± 4.7 vs. 5.5 ± 7.8 times, p <0.05). Although the knee extension torque for both legs was higher in the DG than in the CG, a significant difference was only found in the non-dominant leg. A few ROMs of lower-extremities joints in the dominant leg, ankle inversion, plantiflexion and dorsiflexion were significantly higher in the DG than the CG (p < 0.05). In addition, ankle inversion of the non-dominant leg in the DG was also significantly higher than that in the CG. Conclusions: Compared to their physically inactive counterparts, older females who habitually engage in low-impact dance had significantly higher dynamic balance, knee extension in the non-dominant leg, and ROMs of several joints of the lower extremities. Although this research was not an intervention study, these positive results should encourage further studies, because the aforementioned parameters are associated with risk factors for and reductions in falls.
Cite this paper: Wu, H. , Gau, J. , Hsu, C. , Tu, J. & Tsao, T. (2012). Effects of Habitual Low-Impact Dance on the Balance and Torque of the Knees of Older Female Individuals. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 39-43. doi: 10.4236/ape.2012.22007.
References

[1]   Alexander, N. B., Gross, M. M., Medell, J. L., & Hofmeyer, M. R. (2001). Effects of functional ability and training on chair-rise biomechanics in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, M538-M547. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.9.M538

[2]   American College of Sports Medicine (1998). American college of sports medicine position stand: Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science inSports and Exercise, 30, 992- 1008.

[3]   Asikainen, T. M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., & Miilunpalo, S. (2004). Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women. Sports Medicine, 34, 753-778. doi:10.2165/00007256-200434110-00004

[4]   Bird, M. L., Hill, K., Ball, M., & Williams, A. D. (2009). Effects of resistance- and flexibility-exercise interventions on balance and related measures in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 17, 444-454.

[5]   Bocalini, D. S., Serra, A. J., dos Santos, L., Murad, N., & Levy, R. F. (2009). Strength training preserves the bone mineral density of post- menopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. Journal of Aging and Health, 21, 519-527. doi:10.1177/0898264309332839

[6]   Bravo, G., Gauthier, P., Roy, P. M., Payette, H., Gaulin, P., Harvey, M., Péloquin, L., & Dubois, M. F. (1996). Impact of a 12-month exercise program on the physical and psychological health of osteopenic women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44, 756-762.

[7]   Cao, Z. B., Maeda, A., Shima, N., Kurata, H., & Nishizono, H. (2007). The effect of a 12-week combined exercise intervention program on physical performance and gait kinematics in community-dwelling elderly women. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26, 325-332. doi:10.2114/jpa2.26.325

[8]   Carville, S. F., Rutherford, O. M., & Newham, D. J. (2006). Power output, isometric strength and steadiness in the leg muscles of pre- and postmenopausal women; the effects of hormone replacement therapy. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 292-298. doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0078-4

[9]   Chandler, J. M., Duncan, P. W., Kochersberger, G., & Studenski, S. (1998). Is lower extremity strength gain associated with improvement in physical performance and disability in frail, community-dwelling elders? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 24-30. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90202-7

[10]   Dowdy, D. B., Cureton, K. J., DuVal, H. P., & Ouzts, H. G. (1985). Effects of aerobic dance on physical work capacity cardiovascular function and body composition of middle-aged obese women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56, 227-233.

[11]   Engels, H. J., Drouin, J., Zhu, W., & Kazmierski, J. F. (1998). Effects of low-impact, moderate-intensity exercise training with and without wrist weights on functional capacities and mood states in older adults. Gerontology, 44, 239-244. doi:10.1159/000022018

[12]   G?therstr?m, G., Elbornsson, M., Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, K., Bengtsson, B. A., Johannsson, G., & Svensson, J. (2010). Muscle strength in elderly adults with GH deficiency after 10 years of GH replacement. European Journal of Endocrinology, 163, 207-215. doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0009

[13]   Greeves, J. P., Cable, N. T., Reilly, T., & Kingsland, C. (1999). Changes in muscle strength in women following the menopause: A longitudinal assessment of the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy. Clinical Science, 97, 79-84. doi:10.1042/CS19980406

[14]   Hammar, M. L., Lindgren, R., Berg, G. E., Moller, C. G., & Niklasson, M. K. (1996). Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on the postural balance among postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 88, 955-960. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(96)00356-0

[15]   Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., Macera, C. A., Heath, G. W., Thompson, P. D., & Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1423-1434. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27

[16]   Hopkins, D. R., Murrah, B., Hoeger, W. W., & Rhodes, R. C. (1990). Effect of low-impact aerobic dance on the functional fitness of elderly women. The Gerontologist, 30, 189-192. doi:10.1093/geront/30.2.189

[17]   Hortoba′gyi, T., Tunnel, D., Moody, J., Beam, S., & DeVita, P. (2001). Low- or high-intensity strength training partially restores impaired quadriceps force accuracy and steadiness in aged adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, B38-B47. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.1.B38

[18]   Huang, T. T., Yang, L. H., & Liu, C. Y. (2011). Reducing the fear of falling among community-dwelling elderly adults through cognitive-behavioural strategies and intense Tai Chi exercise: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67, 961-971. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05553.x

[19]   James, B., & Parker, A. W. (1989). Active and passive mobility of lower limb joints in elderly men and women. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 68, 162-167. doi:10.1097/00002060-198908000-00002

[20]   Janis, L. R. (1990). Aerobic dance survey. A study of high-impact versus low-impact injuries. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 80, 419-423.

[21]   Katzman, W. B., Sellmeyer, D. E., Stewart, A. L., Wanek, L., & Hamel, K. A. (2007). Changes in flexed posture, musculoskeletal impairments, and physical performance after group exercise in community-dwelling older women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88, 192-199. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.10.033

[22]   Kukuljan, S., Nowson, C. A., Sanders, K., & Daly, R. M. (2009). Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: An 18-mo randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107, 1864-1873. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00392.2009

[23]   Macaluso, A., Young, A., Gibb, K. S., Rowe, D. A., & De Vito, G. (2003). Cycling as a novel approach to resistance training increases muscle strength, power, and selected functional abilities in healthy older women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 2544-2553.

[24]   Mecagni, C., Smith, J. P., Roberts, K. E., & O’Sullivan, S. B. (2000). Balance and ankle range of motion in community-dwelling women aged 64 to 87 years: A correlational study. Physical Therapy, 80, 1004- 1011.

[25]   Melzer, I., Benjuya, N., & Kaplanski, J. (2003). Effects of regular walking on postural stability in the elderly. Gerontology, 49, 240- 245. doi:10.1159/000070404

[26]   Norkin, C. W., & White, D. J. (1995). Measurement of joint motion (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, FA: Davis.

[27]   Qin, L., Choy, W., Leung, K., Leung, P. C., Au, S., Hung, W., Dambacher, M., & Chan, K. (2005). Beneficial effects of regular Tai Chi exercise on musculoskeletal system. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 23, 186-190. doi:10.1007/s00774-004-0559-2

[28]   Ricard, M. D., & Veatch, S. (1990). Comparison of impact forces in high and low impact aerobic dance movements. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 6, 67-77.

[29]   Ricotti, L., & Ravaschio, A. (2011). Break dance significantly increases static balance in 9 years-old soccer players. Gait Posture, 33, 462- 465. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.12.026

[30]   Roberts, H. (2007). Managing the menopause. British Medical Journal, 334, 736-741. doi:10.1136/bmj.39153.522535.BE

[31]   Rubenstein, L. Z. (2006). Falls in older people: Epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing, 35, ii37-ii41. doi:10.1093/ageing/afl084

[32]   Sepic, S. B., Murray, M. P., Mollinger, L. A., Spurr, G. B., & Gardner, G. M. (1986). Strength and range of motion in the ankle in two age groups of men and women. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 65, 75-84.

[33]   Shigematsu, R., Okura, T., Sakai, T., & Rantanen, T. (2008). Square- stepping exercise versus strength and balance training for fall risk factors. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 19-24.

[34]   Shimamoto, H., Adachi, Y., Takahashi, M., & Tanaka, K. (1998). Low impact aerobic dance as a useful exercise mode for reducing body mass in mildly obese middle-aged women. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 17, 109-114.

[35]   Stanziano, D. C., Roos, B. A., Perry, A. C., Lai, S., & Signorile, J. F. (2009). The effects of an active-assisted stretching program on functional performance in elderly persons: A pilot study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 4, 115-120.

[36]   Steffen, T. M., Hacker, T. A., & Mollinger, L. (2002). Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: Six-minute walk test, Berg balance scale, timed up & go test, and gait speeds. Physical Therapy, 82, 128-137.

[37]   Vandervoort, A. A., Chesworth, B. M., Cunningham, D. A., Rechnitzer, P. A., Paterson, D. H., & Koval, J. J. (1992). An outcome measure to quantify passive stiffness of the ankle. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 83, S19-S23.

[38]   Vandervoort, A. A., Hill, K., Sandrin, M., & Vyse, V. M. (1990). Mobility impairment and falling in the elderly. Physiotherapy Canada, 42, 99-107.

[39]   Yokoya, T., Demura, S., & Sato, S. (2008). Fall risk characteristics of the elderly in an exercise class. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 27, 25-32. doi:10.2114/jpa2.27.25

 
 
Top