Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant

ABSTRACT

A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.

A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.

Cite this paper

P. Smeulders, "Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 345-349. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34047.

P. Smeulders, "Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant,"

References

[1] P. Smeulders, “The Measure of the Speed of Light,” Superlattices and Microstructures, Vol. 43, No. 5-6, 2008, pp. 651-654. doi:10.1016/j.spmi.2007.07.007

[2] J. K. Webb, et al., “Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 87, No. 9, 2001, Article ID 091301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.091301

[3] A. Albrecht and J. Magueijo, “Time Varying Speed of Light As a Solution to Cosmological Puzzles,” Physical Review D, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1999, Article ID 043516. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.59.043516

[4] J. D. Barrow, “Varying Constants,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Vol. A363, 2005, pp. 2139-2153.

[5] J. C. Gimenez, “A Simple Cosmological Model with Decreasing Light Speed,” 2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0310178.

[6] J. W. Moffat, “Superluminary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Initial Value Problem in Cosmology,” International Journal of Physics D, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993, pp. 351- 365. doi:10.1142/S0218271893000246

[7] E. Wright http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmolog.html

[8] E. Wright http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/sne_cosmology.html

[9] A. Riess, et al., “New Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries of Type la Supernovae at z ≥ 1: Narrowing Constraints on the Early Behavior of Dark Energy,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 659, No. 1, 2007, pp. 98-121. doi:10.1086/510378

[10] J. Bouwens, et al., “Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, No. 1, 2004, pp. L1-L4. doi:10.1086/423786

[1] P. Smeulders, “The Measure of the Speed of Light,” Superlattices and Microstructures, Vol. 43, No. 5-6, 2008, pp. 651-654. doi:10.1016/j.spmi.2007.07.007

[2] J. K. Webb, et al., “Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 87, No. 9, 2001, Article ID 091301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.091301

[3] A. Albrecht and J. Magueijo, “Time Varying Speed of Light As a Solution to Cosmological Puzzles,” Physical Review D, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1999, Article ID 043516. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.59.043516

[4] J. D. Barrow, “Varying Constants,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Vol. A363, 2005, pp. 2139-2153.

[5] J. C. Gimenez, “A Simple Cosmological Model with Decreasing Light Speed,” 2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0310178.

[6] J. W. Moffat, “Superluminary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Initial Value Problem in Cosmology,” International Journal of Physics D, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993, pp. 351- 365. doi:10.1142/S0218271893000246

[7] E. Wright http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmolog.html

[8] E. Wright http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/sne_cosmology.html

[9] A. Riess, et al., “New Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries of Type la Supernovae at z ≥ 1: Narrowing Constraints on the Early Behavior of Dark Energy,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 659, No. 1, 2007, pp. 98-121. doi:10.1086/510378

[10] J. Bouwens, et al., “Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, No. 1, 2004, pp. L1-L4. doi:10.1086/423786