ABSTRACT Modeling the force-velocity dependence of a muscle-tendon unit has been one of the most interesting objectives in the field of muscle mechanics. The so-called Hill’s equation [1,2] is widely used to describe the force-velocity relationship of muscle fibers. Hill’s equation was based on the laboratory measurements of muscle fibers and its application to the practical measurements in muscle mechanics has been problematic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a new explicit calculation method to determine the force-velocity relationship, and test its function in experimental measurements. The model was based on the motion analysis of arm movements. Experiments on forearm rotations and whole arm rotations were performed downwards and upwards at maximum velocity. According to the present theory the movement proceeds as follows: start of motion, movement proceeds at constant maximum rotational moment (Hypothesis 1), movement proceeds at constant maximum power (Hypothesis 2), and stopping of motion. Theoretically derived equation, in which the motion proceeds at constant maximum power, fitted well the experimentally measured results. The constant maximum rotational moment hypothesis did not seem to fit the measured results and therefore a new equation which would better fit the measured results is needed for this hypothesis.
Cite this paper
nullA. Rahikainen, J. Avela and M. Virmavirta, "Modeling the Force-Velocity Relationship in Arm," World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 90-97. doi: 10.4236/wjm.2012.22011.
 A. V. Hill, “The Heat of Shortening and the Dynamic Constants of Muscle,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 126, No. 843, 1938, pp. 136-195.
 A. V. Hill, “First and Last Experiments in Muscle Mechanics,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1970.
 W. Herzog, “Force-Velocity Relation,” In: B. M. Nigg and W. Herzog, Eds., Biomechanics of the Musculo- Skeletal System, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 1999, pp. 173-180.
 W. Herzog, “Mechanical Properties and Performance in Skeletal Muscles,” In: V. Zatsiorsky, Ed., Biomechanics in sport, Blackwell Science University Press, Cambridge, 2000, pp. 21-32. doi:10.1002/9780470693797.ch2
 B. R. MacIntosh and R. J. Holash, “Power Output and Force Velocity Properties of Muscle,” In: B. M. Nigg, B. R. MacIntosh and J. Mester, Eds., Biomechanics and Biology of Movement, Human Kinetics, Champaign, 2000, pp. 193-210.
 D. A. Winter, “Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement,” 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, 2004, pp. 215-222.
 J. H. Challis, “Muscle-Tendon Architecture and Athletic performance,” In: V. Zatsiorsky, Ed., Biomechanics in sport, Blackwell Science University Press, Cambridge, 2000, pp. 33-55. doi:10.1002/9780470693797.ch3
 D. E. Rassier, B. R. MacIntosh and W. Herzog, “Length Dependence of Active Force Production in Skeletal Muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 86, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1445-1457.
 R. T. Raikova, “A Model of the Flexion – Extension Motion in the Elbow Joint—Some Problems Concerning Muscle Forces Modeling and Computation,” Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1996, pp. 763-772.
 R. T. Raikova and H. Ts. Aladjov, “Comparison between Two Models under Dynamic Conditions,” Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2005, pp. 373-387.
 A. Rahikainen and P. Luhtanen, “A Study of the Effect of Body Rotation on the Arm Push in Shot Put,” Russian Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2004, pp. 78-93.
 A. Rahikainen, “Biomechanics in Shot Put,” Helsinki University, Helsinki, 2008.
 A. Rahikainen, J. Avela and M. Virmavirta, “Modeling the Force—Velocity Relationship in Arm Movement,” Proceedings of the 14th ECSS Congress, Oslo, 24-27 June 2009, p. 570.
 A. Rahikainen, “Method and Apparatus for Photographing a Movement,” US Patent No. 4927261, 1990.
 A. Rahikainen, “The Use of Rotating Disk in the Photography of Movements,” Russian Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, pp. 47-64.