WJM  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2012
Thermal Fatigue Life Estimation and Fracture Mechanics Studies of Multilayered MEMS Structures Using a Sub-Domain Approach
ABSTRACT
This paper is concerned with the application of a Physics of Failure (PoF) methodology to assessing the reliability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) switches. Numerical simulations, based on the finite element method (FEM) using a sub-domain approach, were performed to examine the damage onset (e.g. yielding) due to temperature variations and to simulated the crack propagation different kind of loading conditions and, in particular, thermal fatigue. In this work remeshing techniques were employed in order to understand the evolution of initial flaws due, for instance, to manufacturing processes or originated after thermal fatigue.

Cite this paper
nullA. Maligno, D. Whalley and V. Silberschmidt, "Thermal Fatigue Life Estimation and Fracture Mechanics Studies of Multilayered MEMS Structures Using a Sub-Domain Approach," World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 61-76. doi: 10.4236/wjm.2012.22008.
References
[1]   J. Dhennin and D. Lellouchi, “Implementation of Physics of Failure for MEMS,” 2009. http://polynoe.org/page1.htm

[2]   T. Hsu, “MEMS and Microsystems,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 2008.

[3]   Y. Gu and T. Nakamura, “Interfacial Delamination and Fatigue Life Estimation of 3D Solder Bumps in Flip-Chip Packages,” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2004, pp. 471-483. doi:10.1016/j.microrel.2003.11.002

[4]   N. Kay, E. Madenci and S. Shkarayev, “Global/Local Finite Element Analysis for Singular Stress Fields near the Junction of Dissimilar Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Materials in Electronic Packages,” Proceedings Electronic Components & Technology Conference, San Diego, 1999, pp. 987-993.

[5]   E. Madenci, S. Shkarayev and B. Sergeev, “Thermo- Mechacal Stresses for a Triple Junction of Dissimilar Materials: Global-Local Finite Element Analysis,” Journal of Theoretical Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 30, No. 103, 1998, pp. 103-117.

[6]   A. R. Maligno, S. Rajaratnam, S. B. Leen and E. J. Williams, “A Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth Using Remeshing Techniques,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 77, No. 11, 2010, pp. 94-111.

[7]   A. R. Maligno, D. Whalley, V. Silberschmidt, “Interfacial Failure under Thermal Fatigue Loading in Multilayered MEMS Structure,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2010, Article ID: 012087.

[8]   A. Cowen, “MetalMUMPs Design Handbook (Revision 1.0),” 2002.

[9]   D. Hill, W. Szyszkowski and E. Bordatchev, “On Modeling and Computer Simulation of an Electro-Thermally Driven Cascaded Nickel Micro-Actuator,” Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 126, No. 1, 2006, pp. 253-263. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2005.09.030

[10]   J. King, “Materials Handbook for Hybrid Micro Electronics,” Artech House, Boston, 1988.

[11]   H. S. Ho, et al., “Measured Mechanical Properties of LIGA Ni Structures,” Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 103, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 59-63. doi:10.1016/S0924-4247(02)00314-X

[12]   Y. L. Shen, “Externally Constrained Plastic Flow in Miniaturized Metallic Structures: A Continuum-Based Approach to Thin Films, Lines, and Joints,” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2008, pp. 838-891. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2008.03.001

[13]   MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange, “An information Portal for the MEMS and Nanotechnology Community,” 2009. www.memsnet.org

[14]   Online Materials Information Resource, 2009. www.matweb.org

[15]   K. Weinberg and W. H. Muller, “A Strategy for Damage Assessment of Thermally Stressed Copper Vias in Microelectronic Printed Circuit Boards,” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2008, pp. 68-82. doi:10.1016/j.microrel.2007.03.003

[16]   D. B. Barker and A. Dasgupta, “Thermal Analysis in Plated-Through-Hole Reliability,” In: J. H. Lau, Ed., Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronic Packaging, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993.

[17]   M. Niewczas and J. D. Embury, “Approaching the Theoretical Strength in Ductile Copper,” In: N. Zabaras, et al., Eds., The Integration of Material, Process and Product Design, Taylor & Francis, 1999.

[18]   J. K. Luo, et al., “Young’s Modulus of Electroplated Ni Thin Film for MEMS Applications,” Materials Letters, Vol. 58, No. 17-18, 2004, pp. 2306-2309. doi:10.1016/S0167-577X(04)00137-5

[19]   Simulia/ABAQUS User’s Manual, Version 6.9.

[20]   M. J. Cordill, T. Muppidi, N. R. Moody and D. F. Bahr, “Effects of Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties of Copper Films for High Aspect Ratio Structures,” Microsystems Technologies, Vol. 10, No. 6-7, 2004, pp. 451-455. doi:10.1007/s00542-004-0370-y

[21]   P. C. Paris and F. Erdogan, “A Critical Analysis of Crack Propagation Laws,” Journal of Basic Engineering, Vol. 85, No. 4, 1960, pp. 528-534. doi:10.1115/1.3656900

[22]   P. C. Adrian and M. H Aliabadi, “Dual Boundary Element Assessment of Three-Dimensional Fatigue Crack Growth,” Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1157-1173. doi:10.1016/j.enganabound.2004.01.005

[23]   M. Guagliano and L. Vergani, “A Simplified Approach to Crack Growth Prediction in a Crank Shaft,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1994, pp. 1295-1306.

[24]   J. R. Rice, “A Path Independent Integral and the Approximate Analysis of Strain Concentrations by Notches and Cracks,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1968, pp. 379-386. doi:10.1115/1.3601206

[25]   F. Z. Li, C. F. Shih and A. Needleman, “A Comparison of Methods for Calculating Energy Release Rate,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1985, pp. 405-421. doi:10.1016/0013-7944(85)90029-3

[26]   D. M. Parks, “The Virtual Crack Extension Method for Nonlinear Material Behaviour,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1977, pp. 353-364. doi:10.1016/0045-7825(77)90023-8

[27]   H.G. DeLorenzi, “On the energy release rate and the J-integral for 3D crack configurations,” Journal of Fracture, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1982, 183-193. doi:10.1007/BF00017129

 
 
Top