ABSTRACT In this study, the trends in latent and sensible heat fluxes (LHF and SHF) over the Southern Ocean (oceans south of 35?S) and the contributions of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), the Pacific-South America teleconnection patterns (PSA1 and PSA2) and The El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to these heat fluxes were investigated using the Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Fluxes (OAFlux) dataset from 1979 to 2008. Significant positive annual trends in LHF occur over the Agulhas Current, the Brazil Current, the oceans in the vicinity of New Zealand and southern Australia, and the eastern Pacific Ocean near between 35?S and 40?S. Significant negative seasonal trends occur in LHF which differ among the four seasons. The spatial pattern and seasonal variation of the trends in SHF over the Southern Ocean are similar to those of LHF. The spatial patterns of the trends in LHF and SHF caused by the AAO, PSA1, PSA2 and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) indices show a wave-like feature, varying with different seasons, that can be explained by the anomalous meridional wind associated with the four indices. The above four indices account for a small portion of the trend in LHF and SHF. The residual trends in LHF over the Southern Ocean may be explained by a climate shift in the late 1990s for the four seasons. But the residual trends in SHF over the Southern Ocean are not associated with the climate shift.
Cite this paper
L. Yu, Z. Zhang, M. Zhou, S. Zhong, D. Lenschow, B. Li, X. Wang, S. Li, H. Wu and B. Sun, "Trends in Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes over the Southern Ocean," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 159-173. doi: 10.4236/acs.2012.22017.
 J. C. King and J. Turner, “Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.
D. Iudicone, S. Speich, G. Madec and B. Blanke, “The Global Conveyor Belt from a Southern Ocean Perspective,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1377-1400. doi:10.1175/2008JPO3519.1
S. A. Josey, E. C. Kent and P. K. Taylor, “New Insights into the Ocean Heat Budget Closure from Analysis of the SOC Air-Sea Flux Climatology,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 12, No. 9, 1999, pp. 2856-2880.
S.-H. Chou, E. Nelkin, J. Ardizzone and R. M. Atlas, “A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 17, No. 20, 2004, pp. 3974-3989.
D. Gong and S. Wang, “Definition of Antarctic Oscillation Index,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1999, pp. 459-462. doi:10.1029/1999GL900003
D. Thompson and J. Wallace, “Annular Modes in the Extratropical Circulation. Part I: Month-Month Variability,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1000-1016.
A. Verdy, J. Marashall and A. Czaja, “Sea Surface Temperature Variability along the Path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1317-1331.
A. Verdy, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Follows, J. Marshall and A. Czaja, “Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of Interannual Variability,” Global Biogeochemistry Cycles, Vol. 21, 2007, 10 p.
F. Vivier, D. Iudicone, F. Busdraghi and Y.-H. Park, “Dynamics of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Sou- thern Ocean Diagnosed from a 2-D Mixed-Layer Model,” Climate Dynamics, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2009, pp. 153-184.
J. B. Sallée, K. G. Speer and S. R. Rintoul, “Zonally Asymmetric Response of the Southern Ocean Mixed-Lay- er Depth to the Southern Annular Mode,” Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 273-279. doi:10.1038/ngeo812
S. T. Gille, “Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s,” Science, Vol. 295, No. 5558, 2002, pp. 1275-1277.
W. L. Chapman and J. E. Walsh, “A Synthesis of Antarctic Temperatures,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, No. 16, 2007, pp. 4096-4117. doi:10.1175/JCLI4236.1
D. J. Cavalieri and C. L. Parkinson, “Antarctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends, 1979-2006,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, 2008, 19 p.
X.-Y. Yang, R. X. Huang and D. X. Wang, “Decadal Changes of Wind Stress over the Southern Ocean Associated with Antarctic Ozone Depletion,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, No. 14, 2007, pp. 3395-3410.
D. W. Thompson and J. M. Wallace, “Annular Modes in Extratropical Circulation. Part II: Trends,” Journal of Cli- mate, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1018-1036.
L. Yu and R. A. Weller, “Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Heat Fluxes for the Global Ice-Free Oceans (1981-2005),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2007, pp. 527-539.
L. Yu, X. Jin and R. A. Weller, “Multidecade Global Flux Datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Fluxes Project: Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes, Ocean Evaporation, and Related Surface Meteorological Variables. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,” OAFlux Project Technical Report OA-2008-01, Woods Hole, 2008, p. 64.
K. C. Mo, “Relationships between Low-Frequency Variability in the Southern Hemisphere and Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 13, No. 20, 2000, pp. 3599-3606.
D. W. J. Thompson and S. Solomon, “Interpretation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change,” Science, Vol. 296, No. 5569, 2002, pp. 895-899.
G. J. Marshall, “Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from Observations and Re-Analyses,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 16, No. 24, 2003, pp. 4134-4143.
M. Rouault, P. Penven and B. Pohl, “Warming in the Agulhas Current System since the 1980’s,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, 2009, 5 p.
L. Yu, X. Jin and R. A. Weller, “Role of Net Surface Heat Flux in Seasonal Variations of Sea Surface Temperature in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, No. 23, 2006, pp. 6153-6169.
J. A. Curry and P. J. Webster, Ocean Surface Exchanges of Heat and Fresh Water. “Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans,” Academic Press, New York, 1999.
D. E. Harrison and A. M. Chiodi, “Pre and post 1997/1998 Westerly Wind Events qnd Equatorial Pacific cold Tongue Warming,” Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2009, pp. 568-581. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2270.1
K.-S. Yun, K.-J. Ha, B. Wang and R. Ding, “Decadal Cooling in the Indian Summer Monsoon after 1997/1998 El Ni?o and its Impact on the East Asian Summer Monsoon,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, 2010, 6 p.