AJPS  Vol.3 No.4 , April 2012
Structure, Composition and Diversity of Horticulture Trees and Agricultural Crops Productivity under Traditional Agri-Horticulture System in Mid Hill Situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India
Abstract: Productivity of agricultural crops under traditional agri-hortculture system alongwith structure, composition and diversity of fruit trees and shrub species in mid hill situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India between 1000 to 2000 m asl during summer and winter seasons on northern and southern aspect were studied. The tree density, composition and diversity in the system varied depending upon aspect, landholding and requirements of the farmers. A total of 12 fruit tree species were recorded in agri-horticulture system; of which 4 trees were common in northern and southern aspect and 6 trees were only noticed in northern aspect while 2 in the southern. The apple tree (Malus domestica) was recorded to be dominant fruit tree species with highest IVI values on both northern and southern aspect with prime preference by the farmers for high additional economic return in agri-horticulture system. Among the shrubs, the 6 shrub species were recorded on the northern aspect whereas there number was 16 on southern aspect. The agricultural crop diversity was higher on the northern aspect in summer and winter season. The average annual productivity of grain under agri-horticulture system recorded 1106 kg·ha–1·year–1 on northern aspect and 1122 kg·ha–1·year–1 on southern with a reduction of 34.56% and 38.29% compared to the sole agriculture crops. The aspect and season also played significantly role in grain, straw and biological productivity of agricultural crops present in agri-horticulture and sole cropping systems. In general there was reduction in yield of agricultural crops under fruit trees but this reduction is supplemented by fruit production which support and sustain the rural community of this hilly region.
Cite this paper: A. Bijalwan, "Structure, Composition and Diversity of Horticulture Trees and Agricultural Crops Productivity under Traditional Agri-Horticulture System in Mid Hill Situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 480-488. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.34057.

[1]   P. L. Saroj and K. S. Dadhwal, “Present Status and Future Scope of Mango Based Agroforestry Systems in India,” Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1997, pp. 118-127.

[2]   J. T. Curtis and R. P. Mc Intosh, “The Interrelationship of Certain Analytic and Synthetic Phytosociological Characters,” Ecology, Vol. 31, 1950, pp. 434-455. doi:10.2307/1931497

[3]   E. A. Phillips, “Methods of Vegetation Study,” A Holt Dryden Book Henry Hold & Co., Inc., New York, 1959.

[4]   P. B. Whitford, “Distribution of Woodland Plants in Relation to Succession and Clonal Growth,” Ecology, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1949, pp. 199-208. doi:10.2307/1931186

[5]   J. T. Curtis, “The Vegetation of Wiscosin: An Ordination of Plant Communities,” University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1959.

[6]   C. Shannan and W. Weaver, “The Mathematical Theory of Communication,” University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1963.

[7]   E. H. Simpson, “Measurement of Diversity,” Nature, Vol. 163, No. 4148, 1949, p. 688. doi:10.1038/163688a0

[8]   E. C. Pielou, “Ecological Diversity,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1975.

[9]   D. R. Margalef, “Information Theory in Ecology,” Year-book of the Society for General Systems Research, Vol. 3, 1958, pp. 36-71.

[10]   R. H. Whittaker, “Evolution and Measurement of Species Diversity,” Taxon, Vol. 21, No. 2/3, 1972, pp. 213-251. doi:10.2307/1218190

[11]   R. H. Whittaker, “Evolution of Species Diversity in Land Communities,” In: M. K. Hecht, W. C. Streere and B. Wallace, Eds., Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 10, Plenum, New York, 1977, pp. 1-67.

[12]   S. B. Sharma, S. Pandry, S. D. Upadhyaya and R. Agrawal, “Phyto-Sociological Studies of Tree Species Outside Forest in Traditional Agroforestry of Chhattisgarh,” Indian Journal of Agroforestry, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, pp. 26-34.

[13]   N. S. Thakur, N. K. Gupta and B. Gupta, “Phytosociological Analysis of Woody and Non-Woody Components under Some Agroforestry Systems in Western Himalaya—A Case Study,” Indian Journal of Agroforestry, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2004, pp. 65-71.

[14]   O. P. Toky, P. Kumar and P. K. Khosla, “Structure and Function of Traditional Agroforestry Systems in the Western Himalaya. I. Biomass and Productivity,” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1989, pp. 47-70. doi:10.1007/BF00120155

[15]   P. K. Ralhan, A. K. Saxena and J. S. Singh, “An Analysis of Forest Vegetation at and around Nainital in Kumaun Himalaya,” Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy, Vol. 48, 1982, pp. 121-137.

[16]   L. Singh and J. S. Singh, “Species Structure, Dry Matter Dynamics and Carbon Flux of a Dry Tropical Forest in India,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 68, No. 3, 1991, pp. 263-273.

[17]   J. C. Tewari, M. D. Bohra and L. N. Harsh, “Structure and Production Function of Traditional Extensive Agroforestry Systems and Scope of Intensive Agroforestry in Thar Desert,” Indian Journal of Agroforestry, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1999, pp. 81-94.

[18]   B. M. Kumar, G. S. Jacob and S. Chinnamani, “Diversity, Structure and Standing Stock of Wood in the Homegardens of Kerala in Peninsular India,” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1994, pp. 243-262. doi:10.1007/BF00707463

[19]   D. Jose, “Structure and Productivity of the Homegardens of Kerala: A Case Study,” In: C. G. R. Ramachandran Nair, Ed., Proceedings of the Fourth Kerala Science Congress, Thrissure, Science, Technology and Environment Department of Kerala, Thiruvananthapura, 27-29 February 1992, pp. 17-19.

[20]   N. K. Joshi and S. C. Tiwari, “Phytosociological Analysis of Woody Vegetation along an Altitudinal Gradation in Garhwal Himalaya,” Indian Journal of Forestry, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1990, pp. 322-328.

[21]   R. Singh, U. K. Sood, M. Bhatia and G. C. Thakur, “Phytosociological Studies on Tree Vegetation around Shimla, Himanchal Pradesh,” Indian Journal of Forestry, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1991, pp. 169-180.

[22]   S. K. Jha, “On Upper Bias in Forest Cover Data of Hilly Terrain Obtained through Satellite Imagery with Special Reference to Mizoram,” Indian Forester, Vol. 127, No. 8, 2001, pp. 871-878.

[23]   S. K. Sharma and S. K. Chauhan, “Performance of Soybean Crop under Tree Species,” Indian Journal of Agroforestry, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 137-139.

[24]   M. L. Khybri, R. K. Gupta, S. Ram and H. P. S. Tomar, “Crop Yields of Rice and Wheat Grown in Rotation as Intercrops with 3 Tree Species in the Outer Hills of Western Himalaya,” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1992, pp. 193-204. doi:10.1007/BF00054147

[25]   K. K Sharma, P. Khanna and A. Gulati, “The Growth and Yield of Wheat and Paddy as Influenced by Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Boundary Plantation,” Indian Forester, Vol. 122, No. 12, 1996, pp. 114-126.

[26]   R. Newaj, M. K. Bhargava, R. S. Yadav and A. K. Shanker, “Tree-Crop Interaction in Albizia procera Based Agroforestry System in Relation to Soil Moisture, Light and Nutrients,” Indian Journal of Agroforestry, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 17-29.

[27]   A. N. Osman, A. Rabild, J. L. Christiansen and J. Bayala, “Performance of Cowpea (Vigna nguiculata) and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an Agroforestry System in Burkina Faso,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2011, pp. 882-891.

[28]   R. Kiran, A. K. Agnihotri and B. C. Saini, “Wheat Yield as Influenced by Net Radiation Available Below Eucalyptus tereticornis and Dalbergia sissoo Canopies,” Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2002, pp. 68-70.

[29]   J. G. Bellow, “Fruit-Tree-Based Agroforestry in the Western Highlands of Guatemala: An Evaluation of Tree-Crop Interactions and Socioeconomic Characteristics,” Ph.D. Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Florida, Gainesville, 2004.

[30]   J. H. Carnell, “Apparent versus Real’ Competition in Plants,” In: G. B. Grace and D. Tilman Eds., Perspective on Plant Competition, Academic Press, New York, 1990, pp. 9-26.

[31]   R. W. Willey and M. S. Reddy, “A Field Technique for Separating above and below Ground Interaction in Intercropping: An Experiment with Pearl Millet/Groundnut,” Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 17, 1981, pp. 257-264. doi:10.1017/S0014479700011613