ABSTRACT The present study documents three facies associations recorded from the Patherwa Formation. These facies are related to tidally influenced fluvial channel (Facies association A), tidal channel (Facies association B) and tidal sand bar/tidal flat sandy facies (Facies association C). The spatio-temporal variation of these facies associations and palaeocurrent trends suggest tide dominated estuarine system. The estuaries were operational along a 60 km long NW-SE trending palaeo-shoreline. The Patherwa Formation grades up-section into facies packages of increasing tidal energy and terminate with the deposition within the upper flow regime estuarine settings.
Cite this paper
A. Ahmad, G. Bhat and R. Agarwal, "Facies Development and Depositional Environment of the Patherwa Formation (Semri Group), Son Valley, India," Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 80-90. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2012.22009.
 J. J. W. Rogers, “The Dharwar Craton and the Assembly of Peninsular India,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1986, pp. 129-143. doi:10.1086/629019
 B. P. Radhakrishna and S. M. Naqvi, “Precambrian Continental Crust of India and its Evolution,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1986, pp. 145-166.
 H. Narain, “Geophysical Constrains on the Evolution of Purana Basins of India with Special Reference to Cuddapah, Godavari and Vindhyan Basins, Purana Basins of Peninsular India,” Memoir—Geological Society of India, Vol. 6, 1987, pp. 5-32.
 T. Oldham, “Remarks on the Classification of the Rocks of Central India Resulting from the Investigation of the Geological Survey,” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 25, 1856, pp. 224-256.
 J. B. Auden, “Vindhyan Sedimentation in the Son Valley, Mirzapur District,” Geological Survey of India, Vol. 62, Part 2, 1933, pp. 141-250.
 P. P. Chakraborty, “Sedimentary Records of Erg Developments over Braid Plain, Proterozoic Dhandraul Sandstone, Vindhyan Supergroup, Son Valley,” Memoir— Geological Society of India, Vol. 36, 1996, pp. 77-99.
 A. B. Roy, “Stratigraphic and Tectonic Framework of the Aravalli Mountain Range,” In: A. B. Roy, Ed., Precambrian of the Aravalli Mountain, India Memoir-Geological Survey of India, Rajasthan, 1988, pp. 3-31.
 R. K. Verma, “Geodynamic of Indian Peninsula and Indian Plate Margins,” Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, 1991, pp. 1-357.
 M. E. A. Mondal, J. N. Goswami, M. P. Deomurari and K. K. Sharma, “Ionprobe 207Pb/206Pb Ages of Zircons from the Bundelkhand Massif, Northern India: Implications for Crustal Evolution of the Bundelkhand-Aravalli Protocontinent,” Precambrian Research, Vol. 117, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 85-100. doi:10.1016/S0301-9268(02)00078-5
 A. R. Crawford and W. Compston, “The Age of the Vindhyan System of Peninsular Indian,” Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 125, 1969, pp. 351-371.
 B. P. Radhakrishna, “Purana Basins of Peninsular India (Middle to Late Proterozoic),” Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. 66, 1987, pp. 1-518.
 S. Gupta, N. K. C. Jain, V. C. Srivastva and R. D. Mehrotra, “Depositional Environment and Tectonism during the Sedimentation of the Semri and Kaimur Groups of Rocks, Vindhyan Basin,” Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol. 48, 2003, pp. 182-190.
 I. B. Singh, “Depositional Environment of the Vindhyan Sediments in Son Valley Area,” Recent Research Geology, Vol. 1, 1973, pp. 146-152
 A. Bhattacharya and S. Morad, “Proterozoic Braided Ephemeral Fluvial Deposits: An Example from the Dhandraul Sandstone Formation of the Kaimur Group. Son Valley, Central India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 84, No. 1-4, 1993, pp. 101-114. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(93)90048-A
 P. K. Bose and P. P. Chakraborty, “Marine to Fluvial Transition: Proterozoic Upper Rewa Sandstone, Maihar, India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 89, No. 3-4, 1994, pp. 285-302. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(94)90098-1
 S. K. Chanda and A. Bhattacharya, “Vindhyan Sedimentation and Paleogeography: Post-Auden Development,” In: K. S. Valdiya, S. B. Bhatia and V. K. Gaur, Eds., Geology of Vindhyachal, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 1982, pp. 88-101.
 P. K. Bose, S. Sarkar, S. Chakraborty and S. Banerjee, “Overview of the Meso to Neoproterozoic Evolution of the Vindhyan Basin, Central India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 141, 2001, pp. 395-419.
 M. R. C. Lindholm, “A Practical Approach to Sedimentology,” Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 1987, pp. 43-58.
 R. C. Selley, “Paleocurrent and Sediment Transport in the Sirte Basins,” Special Publications of the International Association of Sedimentologists, Vol. 8, 1967, pp. 395-410.
 G. Dev Klein, “Paleocurrent Analysis in Relation to Modern Marine Sediment Dispersal Patterns,” AAPG Bulletin —American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 51, No. 3, 1967, pp. 182-190.
 R. W. Dalrymple, B. A. Zaitlin and R. Boyd, “Estuarine Facies Models: Conceptual Basis and Stratigraphic Implications,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 62, No. 6, 1992, pp. 1130-1146.
 B. A. Zaitlin, R. W. Dalrymple, R. Boyd and D. Leckie, “The Stratigraphic Organization of Incised Valley System, Implications to Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production with Examples from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin,” Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, 1994.
 H. E. Reineck and I. B. Singh, “Depositional Sedimentary Environment,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980.
 D. G. Smith, “Modern Point Bar Deposits Analogous to the Athabasca Oil Sands. Alberta, Canada,” In: P. L. De Boer, A. Van Gelder and S. D. Nio Eds., Tide Influenced Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 417-432.
 H. G. Reading and J. D. Collinson, “Clastic Coasts,” In: H. G. Reading, Eds., Sedimentary Environments: Processes. Facies and Stratigraphy, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1996, pp. 154-231.
 P. L. De Boer, A. P. Oost and M. J. Visser, “The Diurnal Inequality of the as a Parameter for Recognizing Tidal Influences,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 59, No. 6, 1989, pp. 912-921.
 D. A. Leckie and C. Singh, “Estuarine Deposits of the Albian Paddy Member (Peace River Formation) and Lowermost Shaftsbury Formation. Alberta, Canada,” Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 61, No. 5, 1991, pp. 825-849.
 S. D. Nio and S. H. Yang, “Diagnostic Attributes of Clastical Tidal Deposits, a Review,” In: D. G. Smith, G. E. Reinson, B. A. Zaitlin and R. A. Rahmani Eds., Clastical Tidal Sedimentology, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 16, 1991, pp. 3-28.
 P. P. Bjorklund, “Stacked Fluvial and Tide dominated Estuarine Deposits in High Frequency (Fourth Order) Sequences of the Eocene Central Basin. Spitsbergen,” Sedimentology, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2005, pp. 391-428.
 K. Yagishita, J. Ashi, S. Ninomiya and A. Taira, “Two Types of Plane Beds under Upper Flow Regime in Flume Experiments, Evidences from Grain Fabric,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 163, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 229-236.
 J. F. M. De Raaf, J. R. Boersma and A. Ven Gelder, “Wave Generated Structure and Sequences from a Shallow Marine Succession/Lower Carboniferous, Country Cork, Ireland,” Sedimentology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1977, pp. 451-483. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1977.tb00134.x
 J. Bourgeois, “A Transgressive Shelf Sequence Exhibiting Hummocky Stratification: Sebastian Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous) South Western Oregon,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1980, pp. 681-702.
 R. J. Cheel and D. A. Leckie, “Hummocky Cross-Stratification,” Sedimentology Review, Vol. 1, 1993, pp. 103-122. doi:10.1002/9781444304534.ch7
 K. Hori, Y. Saito, Q. Zhao, X. Cheng, P. Wang, C. Li and Y. Sato, “Sedimentary Facies of Tide-Dominated Paleochanging (Yangtze) Estuary during the Last Transgression,” Marine Geology, Vol. 177, No. 3-4, 2001, pp. 331-351. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(01)00165-7
 M. Raza and S. M. Casshyap, “Tectono-Sedimentary Model of Evolution of Middle Proterozoic Vindhyan Basin,” In: Bhattacharya Ed., Proceedings of Group Discussion on the Vindhyan, Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 58, 1994, pp. 278-289.
 A. D. Heap, S. Bryce and D. A. Ryan, “Facies Evolution of Holocene Estuaries and Deltas: A Large Sample Statistical Study from Australia,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 168, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 1-17.
 K. O. Ladipo, “Example of Tidal Current Periodicities from an Upper Cretaceous Sandstone Succession (Anambra Basin, S. E. Nigeria),” In: P. L. Boer, A. N. Gelder and A. D. Nio, Eds., Tide Influenced Sedimentary Environment and Facies Sedimentology and Petroleum Geology, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 333-358.
 J. Thorez, E. Geomaere and R. Dreesen, “Tide and Wave Influenced Depositional Environments in the Psamites Du Controz (Upper Famennian in Belgium),” In: P. L. De Boer, A. Van Gelder and S. D. Nio Eds., Tide Influenced Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 389-415.
 J. A. G. Cooper, “The Role of Extreme Floods in EstuaryCoastal Behavior: Contrasts between Tides Dominated Micro-Tidal Estuaries,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 150, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 123-137.
 M. M. Nichols and R. B. Biggs, “Estuaries,” In: R. A. Davis, Eds., Coastal Sedimentary Environments, SpringerVerlag, New York, 1985, pp. 77-186.
 R. Houthuys and E. Gullentops, “Tidal Transverse Bars Building up a Longitudinal Sand Body (Middle Eocene Belgium),” In: P. L. Boer, A. N. Gelder and A. D. Nio, Eds., Tide Influenced Sedimentary Environment and Facies Sedimentology and Petroleum Geology, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 153-166.
 L. A. Buatois and M. G. Mangano, “Sedimentary Facies Depositional Evolution of the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Santa Rosita Formation in Northwest Argentina,” Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2003, pp. 343-363.
 C. D. Woodroffe, J. Chappell, B. G. Thom and E. Wallensky, “Depositional Model of a Macrotidal Estuary and Floodplain, South Alligator River, Northern Australia,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 36, No. 5, 1989, pp. 737-756.
 J. Chappell and C. D. Woodroffe, “Microtidal Estuaries,” In: R. W. E. Carter and C. D. Woodroffe, Eds., Coastal Evolution: Late Quaternary Shoreline Morphodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994, pp. 187-218.
 M. E. Mulrennan and C. D. Woodroffe, “Holocene Development of the Mary River Plains, Northern Territory, Australia,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1998, pp. 565-579.