OJG  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2012
Simulation Experiments and Kinetics for the Formation of Organic Sulfide in Marine Carbonate Reservoirs
Abstract: Thermal simulation experiments on the system of gasoline and magnesium sulfate were carried out using an autoclave operating at high temperature and high pressure in the presence of water. Properties of the gas-oil-solid 3-phase products were analyzed by some advanced analytical methods including gas chromatography, microcoulometry, capillary gas chromatography in combination with a pulsed flame photometric detector, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the reaction could proceed at 450℃ - 550℃ to produce MgO, S, C, H2S, CO2 and a series of organic sulfides such as mercaptans, sulfoethers and thiophenes as the main products. According to the reaction kinetics, the calculated activation energy of the reaction is 68.9 kJ·mol-1.
Cite this paper: C. Yue, S. Li and Y. Zhang, "Simulation Experiments and Kinetics for the Formation of Organic Sulfide in Marine Carbonate Reservoirs," Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 65-71. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2012.22007.

[1]   S. S. Hao, G. Gao and F. Y. Wang, “Marine Source Rock With High and over Maturity,” Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing, 1996.

[2]   C. F. Cai, R. H. Worden and S. H. Bottrell, et al., “Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction and the Generation Of Hydrogen Sulphide and Thiols (Mercaptans) in Triassic Carbonate Reservoirs from the Sichuan Basin, China,” Chemical Geology, Vol. 202, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 39-57. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00209-2

[3]   B. K. Manzano, M. G. Fowler and H. G. Machel, “The Influence of the Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction on Hydrocarbon Composition in Nisku Reservoirs, Brazeau River Area, Alberta, Canada,” Organic Geochemistry, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1997, pp. 507-521. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00070-3

[4]   W. L. Orr and J. S. D. Sinninghe, “Geochemistry of Sulfur in Petroleum Systems,” In W. L. Orr and C. M. White, Eds., Geochemistry of Sulfur in Fossil Fuels, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1990, pp. 2-29. doi:10.1021/bk-1990-0429.ch001

[5]   T. G. Powell and R. W. MacQueen, “Precipitation of Sulfide Ores and Organic Matter: Sulfade Reactions at Pine Point, Canada,” Science, Vol. 224, No. 4644, 1984, pp. 63-66. doi:10.1126/science.224.4644.63

[6]   D. J. S. Sinninghe, W. I. C. Rijpstra and D. van Kock, et al., “Quenching of Labile Functionalized Lipids by Inorganic Sulfur Species: Evidence for the Formation of Sedimentary Organic Sulfides at the Early Stages of Diagenesis,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 53, 1989, pp. 1343-1355. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(89)90067-7

[7]   A. Vairavamurthy and K. Mopper, “Geochemical Formation of Organosulphur Compounds (Thiols) by Addition of H2S to Sedimentary Organic Matter,” Nature, Vol. 329, No. 6140, 1987, pp. 623-625. doi:10.1038/329623a0

[8]   Y. Q. Xia, Q. X. Meng and H. Y. Wang, et al., “The Simulation of the Formation of Benzothiophene Series Compounds and Their Significance,” Acta Sedimentologica Sinic, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1999, pp. 127-129.

[9]   Y. Q. Xia, C. J. Wang and Q. X. Meng, et al., “The Simulation on the Mechanism of Formation of Thiopheneseries Compounds,” Geochimica, Vol. 28, 1999, pp. 393-396.

[10]   Y. Q. Xia, C. J. Wang and Q. X. Meng, et al., “The Simulation of the Formation of Condensed Nucleus and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon,” Acta Sedimentologica Sinic, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998, pp. 1-4.

[11]   S. Hanin, P. Adam, I. Kowalewski, et al., “Bridgehead Alkylated 2-Thiaadamantanes: Novel Markers for Sulfurisation Processes Occurring under High Thermal Stress in Deep Petroleum Reservoirs,” Chemical Communications, Vol. 16, 2002, pp. 1750-1751. doi:10.1039/b203551k

[12]   R. N. Leif and B. R. T. Simoneit, “The Role of Alkenes Produced during Hydrous Pyrolysis of a Shale,” Organic Geochemistry, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2000, pp. 1189-1208. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00113-3

[13]   H. C. Seewald, “Aqueous Geochemistry of Low Molecular Weight Hydrocarbons at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Constraints from Mineral Buffered Laboratory Experiments,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 65, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1641-1664. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00544-0

[14]   A. Stumpf, K. Tolvaj and M. Juhasz, “Detailed Analysis of Sulfides in Gasoline Range Petroleum Products with High-Resolution Gas Chromatography-Atomic Emission Detection Using Group-Selective Chemical Treatment,” Journal of Chromatogr A, Vol. 819, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 67-74. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00444-0

[15]   Y. T. Yang, H. Y. Yang and B. N. Zong, et al., “Determination and Distribution of Sulfides in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography-Atomic Emission Detector,” Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1153-1158.

[16]   W. S. Peng and G. K. Liu, “The Charts of the Infrared Spectra of the Minerals,” Science Press, Beijing, 1982.

[17]   J. M. Fu and K. Z. Qin, “Geochemistry of Kerogen,” Guangdong Technology Press, Guangzhou, 1995.