Motion machines of second kind

ABSTRACT

The second law of thermodynamics, i.e. the law stating that the entropy in isolated macroscopic system can never decrease, is tightly connected to the work of the device called perpetual motion machine of second kind. Often this law is also defined as the inability to construct such a device. In the current paper we give complete, independent and consistent definitions of static, stationary and changing physical field. Based on that for the first time we give summarising, correct and complete definitions of natural resource machine and perpetual motion machine of second kind as well as motion machine of second kind in the set of tardyons and luxons. We present a principal structure of a motion machine of second kind using which we show that the Clausius statement and its equivalent statements in the thermodynamics can be violated for a practically big interval-time even under equilibrium fluctuations.

The second law of thermodynamics, i.e. the law stating that the entropy in isolated macroscopic system can never decrease, is tightly connected to the work of the device called perpetual motion machine of second kind. Often this law is also defined as the inability to construct such a device. In the current paper we give complete, independent and consistent definitions of static, stationary and changing physical field. Based on that for the first time we give summarising, correct and complete definitions of natural resource machine and perpetual motion machine of second kind as well as motion machine of second kind in the set of tardyons and luxons. We present a principal structure of a motion machine of second kind using which we show that the Clausius statement and its equivalent statements in the thermodynamics can be violated for a practically big interval-time even under equilibrium fluctuations.

Cite this paper

Krastev, G. , Kolikov, K. and Epitropov, Y. (2012) Motion machines of second kind.*Natural Science*, **4**, 252-257. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.44036.

Krastev, G. , Kolikov, K. and Epitropov, Y. (2012) Motion machines of second kind.

References

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[13] Rao, Y. (2004) An introduction to thermodynamics. Universities Press, Hyderabad.

[14] Trupp, A. (1999) Energy, entropy: On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Josef Loschmidt’s death in 1895: Is Loschmidt’s greatest discovery still waiting for its discovery? Physics Essays, 12, 614-628. doi:10.4006/1.3028792

[15] Trupp, A. (2002) Second law violations by means of a stratification of temperature due to force fields. 1st International Conference on Quantum Limits to the Second Law, 28-31 July 2002, San Diego.

[16] Garber, E., Brush, S. and Everitt, C. (1995) Maxwell on heat and statistical mechanics. On “avoiding all personal enquiries” of molecules. Associated University Presses, Cranbury.

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[18] Earman, J. and Norton, J. (1998) Exorcist XIV: The wrath of Maxwell’s demon, Part I. From Maxwell to Szilard. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 29, 435-471. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(98)00023-9

[19] Earman, J. and Norton, J. (1999) Exorcist XIV: The wrath of Maxwell’s demon. Part II. From Szilard to Landauer and beyond. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 30, 1-40. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(98)00026-4

[20] Le?, H. and Rex, A. (1990) Maxwell’s Demon: entropy, information, computing. Institute of Physics, London.

[21] Aristov, V. and Nikulov, A. (2002) Quantum power source putting in order of a Brownian motion without Maxwell’s demon. 1st International Symposium on Quantum Informatics, Lipki, 1-3 October 2002.

[22] Wang, G., Sevick, E., Mittag, E., Searles, D. and Evans, D. (2002) Experimental demonstration of violations of the second law of thermodynamics for small systems and short time scales. Physical Review Letters, 89, 050601/1- 050601/4.

[23] Capek, V. and Bok, J. (2001) Violation of the second law of thermodynamics in the quantum microworld. Physica A, 290, 379-401. doi:10.1016/S0378-4371(00)00345-9

[1] Kamenov, P. (1972) Perpetual motion machines. Narodna Prosveta, Sofia.

[2] Glasstone, S. (1946) Textbook of physical chemistry. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York.

[3] Sklar, L. (1993) Physics and chance. Philosophical issues in the foundations of statistical mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511624933

[4] Reichenbach, H. (1956) The direction of time. University of Los Angeles Press, Los Angeles.

[5] Horwich, P. (1987) Asymmetries in time: Problems in the philosophy of science. MIT Press, Cambridge.

[6] Albert, D. (2000) Time and chance. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

[7] Kvasnikov, I. (2002) Thermodynamics and statistical physics. Vol ?: Theory of Equilibrium systems: Thermodynamics. Editorial URSS, Moscow.

[8] Bazarov, I. (2010) Thermodynamics. Lan, Saint Petersburg.

[9] Sivukhin, D. (2005) General physics course. Volume 2. Fizmatlit, Moscow.

[10] Landau, L. and Lifshitz, Е. (1997) Statistical physics part 1. (Course of theoretical physics Volume 5). Butterworth Heinemann.

[11] Gemmer, J., Otte, A. and Mahler, G. (2001) Quantum approach to a derivation of the second law of thermodynamics. Physical Review Letters, 86, 1927-1930. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.1927

[12] Terletskiy, Y. (1994) Statistical Physics. Vishaya shkola, Moscow.

[13] Rao, Y. (2004) An introduction to thermodynamics. Universities Press, Hyderabad.

[14] Trupp, A. (1999) Energy, entropy: On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Josef Loschmidt’s death in 1895: Is Loschmidt’s greatest discovery still waiting for its discovery? Physics Essays, 12, 614-628. doi:10.4006/1.3028792

[15] Trupp, A. (2002) Second law violations by means of a stratification of temperature due to force fields. 1st International Conference on Quantum Limits to the Second Law, 28-31 July 2002, San Diego.

[16] Garber, E., Brush, S. and Everitt, C. (1995) Maxwell on heat and statistical mechanics. On “avoiding all personal enquiries” of molecules. Associated University Presses, Cranbury.

[17] Leff, H. and Rex, A. (2003) Maxwell’s demon 2: entropy, classical and quantum information, computing. Institute of Physics, London.

[18] Earman, J. and Norton, J. (1998) Exorcist XIV: The wrath of Maxwell’s demon, Part I. From Maxwell to Szilard. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 29, 435-471. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(98)00023-9

[19] Earman, J. and Norton, J. (1999) Exorcist XIV: The wrath of Maxwell’s demon. Part II. From Szilard to Landauer and beyond. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 30, 1-40. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(98)00026-4

[20] Le?, H. and Rex, A. (1990) Maxwell’s Demon: entropy, information, computing. Institute of Physics, London.

[21] Aristov, V. and Nikulov, A. (2002) Quantum power source putting in order of a Brownian motion without Maxwell’s demon. 1st International Symposium on Quantum Informatics, Lipki, 1-3 October 2002.

[22] Wang, G., Sevick, E., Mittag, E., Searles, D. and Evans, D. (2002) Experimental demonstration of violations of the second law of thermodynamics for small systems and short time scales. Physical Review Letters, 89, 050601/1- 050601/4.

[23] Capek, V. and Bok, J. (2001) Violation of the second law of thermodynamics in the quantum microworld. Physica A, 290, 379-401. doi:10.1016/S0378-4371(00)00345-9