ABSTRACT Wireless visual sensor network (VSN) can be said to be a special class of wireless sensor network (WSN) with smart-cameras. Due to its visual sensing capability, it has become an effective tool for applications such as large area surveillance, environmental monitoring and objects tracking. Different from a conventional WSN, VSN typically includes relatively expensive camera sensors, enhanced flash memory and a powerful CPU. While energy consumption is dominated primarily by data transmission and reception, VSN consumes extra power onimage sensing, processing and storing operations. The well-known energy-hole problem of WSNs has a drastic impact on the lifetime of VSN, because of the additional energy consumption of a VSN. Most prior research on VSN energy issues are primarily focusedon a single device or a given specific scenario. In this paper, we propose a novel optimal two-tier deployment strategy for a large scale VSN. Our two-tier VSN architecture includes tier-1 sensing network with visual sensor nodes (VNs) and tier-2 network having only relay nodes (RNs). While sensing network mainly performs image data collection, relay network only for wards image data packets to the central sink node. We use uniform random distribution of VNs to minimize the cost of VSN and RNs are deployed following two dimensional Gaussian distribution so as to avoid energy-hole problem. Algorithms are also introduced that optimizes deployment parameters and are shown to enhance the lifetime of the VSN in a cost effective manner.
Cite this paper
H. Li, V. Pandit and D. P. Agrawal, "Deployment Optimization Strategy for a Two-Tier Wireless Visual Sensor Network," Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2012, pp. 91-106. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2012.44013.
 K. Obraczka, R. Manduchi and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aveces, “Managing the Information Flow in Visual Sensor Networks,” The 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Vol. 3, 2001, pp. 1177-1181. doi:10.1109/WPMC.2002.1088364
 A. N. Belbachir, “Smart Cameras,” Springer, Berlin, 2010.
 S. Soro and W. Heinzelman, “A Survey of Visual Sensor Networks,” Advances in Multimedia, 2009, Article ID: 640386. doi:10.1155/2009/640386
 Y. Char?, N. Wakamiya and M. Murata, “Challenging Issues in Visual Sensor Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2009, pp. 44-49.
 D. P. Agrawal and Q. A. Zeng, “Introduction to wireless and mobile systems,” 3rd Edition, Thomson Engineering, Mobile, 2010.
 C. Cordeiro and D. P. Agrawal, “Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks: Theory and Applications,” 2nd Edition, World Scienti?c, Singapore, 2011.
 D. Wang, B. Xie and D. P. Agrawal, “Coverage and Life- time Optimization of Wireless Sensor Networks with Gaussian Distribution,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 7, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1444-1458.
 N. H. Zamora and R. Marculescu, “Coordinated Distributed Power Management with Video Sensor Networks: Analysis, Simulation, and Prototyping,” First ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, Vienna, 25-28 September 2007, pp. 4-11.
 S. Soro and W. Heinzelman, “Camera Selection in Visual Sensor Networks,” IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal BasedSurveillance, London, 5-7 September 2007, pp. 81-86. doi:10.1109/AVSS.2007.4425290
 J. C. Dagher, M. W. Marcellin and M. A. Neifeld, “A Method Forcoordinating the Distributed Transmission of Imagery,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 15, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1705-1717.
 C. B. Margi, V. Petkov, K. Obraczka and R. Manduchi, “Characterizing Energy Consumption in a Visual Sensor Network Testbed,” 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities, Barcelona, 1-3 March 2006, pp. 331-339. doi:10.1109/TRIDNT.2006.1649166
 H. S. Aghdasi, P. Bisadi, M. E. Moghaddam and M. Abbaspour, “High-Resolution Images with Minimum Energy Dissipation and Maximum Field-of-View in Camera-Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,” Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 8, 2009, pp. 6385-6410.
 J. Li and P. Mohapatra and M. A. Neifeld, “An Analytical Model for the Energy Hole Problem in Many-to-One Sensor Networks,” IEEE 62nd Vehicular Technology Conference, 25-28 September 2005, pp. 2721-2725.
 J. Lian, K. Naik and G. B. Agnew, “Data Capacity Improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Non-Uniform Sensor Distribution,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp. 121- 145. doi:10.1080/15501320500201276
 X. Wu, G. Chen and S. K. Das, “On the Energy Hole Problem of Nonuni-form Node Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE International Conference on Mo- bile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, Vancouver, 9-12 October 2006, pp. 180-187. doi:10.1109/MOBHOC.2006.278555
 Y. Liu, H. Ngan and L. M. Ni, “Power-Aware Node De- ployment Inwireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Interna- tional Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing, Taichung, 5-7 June 2006, p. 8.
 Y. Zou and K. Chakrabarty, “Uncertainty-Aware and Coverage-Oriented Deployment for Sensor Networks,” Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 64, No. 7, 2004, pp. 788-798. doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2004.03.019
 B. Liu and D. Towsley, “A Study of the Coverage of Large-Scale Sensor Networks,” IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, Fort Lauderdale, 25-27 October 2004, pp. 475-483.
 W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, “Anapplication-Speci?c Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2002, pp. 660- 670. doi:10.1109/TWC.2002.804190
 C. Bettstetter, “On the Minimum Node Degree and Connectivity of a Wireless Multihop Networks,” Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, Lausanne, 9-11 June 2002, pp. 80-91. doi:10.1145/513800.513811