AS  Vol.1 No.1 , May 2010
Rice yield, nitrogen utilization and ammonia volatilization as influenced by modified rice cultivation at varying nitrogen rates
Field experiments were conducted in 2006 to investigate the impacts of modified rice cultivation systems on: grain yield, N uptake, ammonia volatilization from rice soil and N use efficiency (ANUE, agronomic N use efficiency; and PFP, partial factor productivity of applied N). The trials compared rice production using modified methods of irrigation, planting, weeding and nutrient management (the system of rice intensification, SRI) with traditional flooding (TF). The effects of different N application rates (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1) and of N rates interacting with cultivation methods were also evaluated. Grain yields ranged from 5.6 to 6.9 t ha-1 with SRI, and from 4.0 to 6.1 t ha-1 under TF management. On average, grain yields under SRI were 24% higher than that with TF. Ammonia volatilization was increased significantly under SRI compared with TF and the average total amount of ammonia volatilization loss during the rice growth stage under SRI was 22% higher than TF. With increases in application rate, N uptake by rice increased, and the ratio of N in the seed to total N in the plant decreased. Furthermore, results showed that higher ANUE was achieved at a relatively low N fertilizer rate (80 kg ha-1 N) with SRI. Results of these studies suggest that SRI increased rice yield and N uptake and improved ammonia volatilization loss from rice soil compared with TF. Moreover, there were significant interactions between N application rates and cultivation methods. We conclude that it was the most important to adjust the amount of N application under SRI, such as reducing the amount of N application. Research on effects of N fertilizer on rice yield and environmental pollution under SRI may be worth further studying.

Cite this paper
nullZhao, L. , Wu, L. , Dong, C. and Li, Y. (2010) Rice yield, nitrogen utilization and ammonia volatilization as influenced by modified rice cultivation at varying nitrogen rates. Agricultural Sciences, 1, 10-16. doi: 10.4236/as.2010.11002.
[1]   Cassman, K.G., Peng, S., Olk, D.C., Ladha, J.K., Reichardt, W., Dobermann, A. and Singh, U. (1998) Opportunities for increased nitrogen-use efficiency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crops Research, 56(1-2), 7-39.

[2]   Barker, R. and Dawe, D. (2001) The transformation of the Asian rice economy and directions for future research: the need for increased productivity. In: Sombilla, M., Hossain, M. and Hardy, B., Ed., Developments in the Asian Rice Economy, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 1-30.

[3]   FAO. (2004) FAO Statistical databases. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome.

[4]   Peng, S.B., Buresh, R.J., Huang, J.L., Yang, J.C., Zou, Y.B., Zhong, X.H., Wang, G.H. and Zhang, F.S. (2006) Strategies for overcoming low agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated rice systems in China. Field Crops Research, 96(1), 37-47.

[5]   Qin, S.W., Fan, X.H. and Wang, J.F. (2001) The fertilization technique of five main crops. In: Xu, J.A., Ed., Fertilization and Agricultural Service, in Chinese, Chemical Industry Press, Beijing.

[6]   Gao, X.J., Hu, X.F., Wang, S.P., He, B.G. and Xu, S.Y. (2002) Nitrogen losses from flooded rice field. Pedosphere, 12(2), 151-156.

[7]   Ghosh, B.C. and Bhat, R. (1998) Environmental hazards of nitrogen loading in wetland rice fields. Environmental Pollution, 102(1), 123-126.

[8]   Barthelmie, R.J. and Pryor, S.C. (1998) Implications of ammonia emissions for the aerosol formation and visibility impairmenta case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, Birtish Columbia. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 345-352.

[9]   Van Nguyen, N. and Ferrero, A. (2006) Meeting the challenges of global rice production. Paddy Water Environment, 4, 1-9.

[10]   Maclean, J.L., Dawe, D.C., Hardy, B. and Hettel, G.P. (2002) Rice almanac. 3rd Edition, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 253.

[11]   FAO. (2001) FAO Statistical databases. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome.

[12]   Bouman, B.A.M. and Tuong, T.P. (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated rice. Agricultural Water Management, 49(1), 11-30.

[13]   Guerra, L.C., Bhuiyan, S.I., Tuong, T.P. and Barker, R. (1998) Producing more rice with less water from irrigated systems. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 1-22.

[14]   Tuong, T.P. and Bouman, B.A.M. (2003) Rice production in water-scarce environments. In: Kijne, J.W., Barker, R. and Molden, D., Ed., Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, 53-67.

[15]   Stoop, W.A., Uphoff, N. and Kassam, A. (2002) A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: Opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers. Agricultural Systems, 71(3), 249-274.

[16]   Uphoff, N., Fernandes, E.C.M., Yuan, L.P., Peng, J.M., Rafaralahy, S. and Rabenandrasana, J. (2002) Assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Proceedings of the International Conference, Sanya, 1-4 April 2002, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD), Ithaca. sri/proccontents.html

[17]   Wang, C.H., Liu, X.J., Ju, X.T. and Zhang, F.S. (2002) Field in situ determination of ammonia volatilization from soil: Venting method. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, 8(2), 205-209.

[18]   Tang, Q.Y. and Feng, M.G. (2002) Practical application of statistics analysis and data processing system. Science Press, Bejing.

[19]   Zhao, L.M., Wu, L.H., Li, Y.S., Animesh, S., Zhu, D.F. and Uphoff, N. (2010) Comparisons of yield, water use efficiency, and soil microbial biomass as affected by the system of rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41(1), 1-12.

[20]   Peng, S., Garcia, F.V., Laza, R.C., Sanico, A.C., Visperas, R.M. and Cassman, K.G. (1996) Increased N-use efficiency using a chlorophyll meter on high-yielding irrigated rice. Field Crops Research, 47(2), 243-252.

[21]   Xu, F.Y., Ma, J., Wang, H.Z., Liu, H.Y., Huang, Q.L., Ma, W.B. and Ming D.F. (2003) The characteristics of roots and their relation to the formation of grain yield under the cultivation by system of rice intensification (SRI). Hybrid Rice, in Chinese, 18(4), 61-65.

[22]   Satyanarayana, A. (2005) System of rice intensification: An innovative method to produce more with less water and inputs. 4th IWMI-Tata Annual Partners’ Meeting, IRMA, Anand, 24-26 February 2005.

[23]   Bonrowski, M. (2004) Protozoa and plant growth: The microbial loop in soil revisited. New Phytologist, 162(3), 616-631.

[24]   Chen, H.Z., Zhu, D.F., Rao, L.B., Lin, X.Q. and Zhang, Y.P. (2006) Effects of SRI technique on population quality after heading stage and yield formation in rice. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University, in Chinese, 25(5), 483-487.

[25]   Lu, X.M., Huang, Q. and Liu, H.Z. (2006) Research of some physiological characteristics under the system of rice intensification. Journal of South China Agricultural University, in Chinese, 27, 5-7.

[26]   Mishra, A. and Salokhe, V.M. (2008) Seedling charactistics and the early growth of transplanted rice under different water regimes. Experimental Agriculture, 44, 1-19.

[27]   Rupela, O.P., Wani, S.P., Kranthi, M., Humayun, P., Satyanarayana, A., Goud, V., Gujja, B., Punnarao, P., Shashibhushan, V., Raju, D.J. and Reddy, P.L. (2006) Comparing soil properties of farmers’ fields growing rice by SRI and conventional methods. Proceedings of 1st National SRI Symposium, Worldwide Fund for Nature-ICRISAT, Hyderabad, 17-18 November 2006.

[28]   Schnier, H.F. (1995) Significance of timing and method of N fertilizer application for N-use efficiency in flooded tropical rice. Fertilizer Research, 42(1-3), 129-138.

[29]   Song, Y.S., Fan, X.H., Lin, D.X., Yang, L.Z. and Zhou, J.M. (2004) Investigation on ammonia loss from the flooded rice field in Taihu region and its influencing factors. Acta Pedologica Sinica, in Chinese, 41(2), 265-269.

[30]   Cui, Y.L., Li, Y.H., Lv, G.A. and Sha, Z.Y. (2004) Nitrogen movement and transformation with different water supply for paddy rice. Advances in Water Science, in Chinese, 15(3), 280-285.