Back
 FNS  Vol.3 No.4 , April 2012
Soybean Seed Phenol, Lignin, and Isoflavones and Sugars Composition Altered by Foliar Boron Application in Soybean under Water Stress
Abstract: Previous research showed that foliar boron (B) application at flowering or seed-fill growth stages altered seed protein, oil, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B fertilizer on seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) and sugars concentrations. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted on soybean [(Glycine max(L.) Merr.)] under watered and water-stressed conditions. Soybean plants were divided into different sets, and each set was subjected to one of the following treatments: W = plants were watered with no foliar B; WB = plants were watered and received foliar B; WS = plants were water-stressed with no foliar B; WSB = plants were waterstressed and received foliar B. Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg/ha twice at flowering and twice at seed-fill stages. The results showed that total phenol and lignin concentrations were higher in seed collected from water-stressed plants compared with those collected from watered plants whether B was applied or not. The higher total phenol and lignin concentration in seed collected of water-stressed plants may be due to B-deficiency in plant tissues. Application of B resulted in higher concentrations of total seed B and isoflavones under watered and water-stressed plants. Higher cell wall B was higher in water-stressed plants than in watered plants, having an opposite trend to total B. Application of B resulted in higher seed sucrose in watered and water-stressed plants, but raffinose and stachyose were significantly higher under water-stressed plants. The research demonstrated that foliar B fertilizer altered seed phenol, lignin, isoflavones, and sugars, suggesting that B involved in phenolics and sugar metabolism. The higher cell wall B in waterstressed plants than in watered plants supports previous research that B has mainly a structural role. The higher sucrose resulting from foliar B in watered plants is desirable as sucrose contributes to seed quality. The increase of raffinose and stachyose concentrations in seed of water-stressed plants is undesirable as raffinose, and especially stachyose may be involved in water stress/drought tolerance. The current knowledge would help soybean breeders select for higher phenolic compounds and desirable sugars for higher seed qualities under drought conditions.
Cite this paper: N. Bellaloui, "Soybean Seed Phenol, Lignin, and Isoflavones and Sugars Composition Altered by Foliar Boron Application in Soybean under Water Stress," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 579-590. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.34080.
References

[1]   R. F. Wilson, “Seed Composition,” In: H. R. Boerma and J. E Specht, Eds., Soybeans: Improvement, Production, and Uses, American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison, 2004, pp. 621-668.

[2]   T. Hymowitz and F. I. Collins, “Variability of Sugar Content of Seed of Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Serb. and Zucco,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, 1974, pp. 239-240. doi:10.2134/agronj1974.00021962006600020017x

[3]   N. Bellaloui, J. R. Smith, A. M. Gillen and J. D. Ray, “Effect of Maturity on Seed Sugar in the Early Soybean Production System as Measured on Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines,” Crop Science, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2009, pp. 608620. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.04.0192

[4]   N. Bellaloui, J. R. Smith, A. M. Gillen and J. D. Ray, “Effects of Maturity, Genotypic Background, and Temperature on Seed Mineral Composition in Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines in the Early Soybean Production System,” Crop Science, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1161-1171. doi:10.2135/cropsci2010.04.0187

[5]   S. R. Schnebly and W. R. Fehr, “Effect of Years and Planting Dates on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Genotypes,” Crop Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1993, pp. 716719. doi:10.2135/cropsci1993.0011183X003300040016x

[6]   G. Sakthivelu, M. K. A. Devi, P. Giridhar, T. Rajasekaran, G. A. Ravishankar, M. T. Nikolova, G. B. Angelov, R. M. Todorova and G. P. Kosturkova, “Isoflavone Composition, Phenol Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Seeds from India and Bulgaria,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2008, pp. 2090-2095. doi:10.1021/jf072939a

[7]   M. Messina, “Modern Applications for an Ancient Bean: Soybeans and the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 125, 1995, pp. 567-569.

[8]   S. M. Potter, J. A. Baum, H. Y. Teng, R. J. Stillman, N. F. Shay and J. W. Erdman, “Soy Protein and Isoflavones: Their Effects on Blood Lipids and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, 1998, pp. 1375s-1379s.

[9]   Wikipedia, Natural Phenology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_phenolverified11-17-2011.

[10]   D. J. Pilbeam and E. A. Kirkby, “The Physiological Role of Boron in Plants,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, Vol. 6, No. 7, 1983, pp. 563-582. doi:10.1080/01904168309363126

[11]   H. Marschner, “Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants,” Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pp. 379-396.

[12]   C. Dordas, “Foliar Boron Application Improves Seed Set, Seed Yield, and Seed Quality of Alfalfa,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 98, No. 4, 2006, pp. 907-913. doi:10.2134/agronj2005.0353

[13]   C. Dordas, G. E. Apostolides and O. Goundra, “Boron Application Affects Seed Yield and Seed Quality of Sugar Beets,” Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 145, No. 4, 2007, pp. 377-384. doi:10.1017/S0021859607006879

[14]   H. M. Rawson and R. N. Noppakoonwong, “Sterility in Wheat in Subtropical Asia Extent, Causes and Solutions,” In: H. M. Rawson and K. D. Subedi, Eds., Proceedings of Workshop, Nepal ACIAR, Canberra, 1996, pp. 85-89.

[15]   H. M. Rawson, “The Developmental Stage during Which Boron Limitation Causes Sterility in Wheat Genotypes and the Recovery of Fertility,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1996, pp. 709-717. doi:10.1071/PP9960709

[16]   N. Bellaloui, K. N. Reddy, A. M. Gillen and C. A. Able, “Nitrogen Metabolism and Seed Composition as Influenced by Foliar B Application in Soybean,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 336, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 143-155. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0455-6

[17]   J. F. Jackson, et al., “Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry and Physiology,” University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1991.

[18]   A. Asad, F. P. C. Blamey and D. G. Edwards, “Effects of Boron Foliar Applications on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Sunflower,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 92, No. 4, 2003, pp. 565-570. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg179

[19]   N. Roth-Bejerano and C. C. Ltai, “Effect of Boron on Stomatal Opening in Epidermal Strips of Commelina Comunis,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 52, No. 2, 1981, pp. 302-304. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1981.tb08510.x

[20]   P. M. Tang and R. K. de la Fuente, “Boron and Calcium Sites Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Transport in Sunflower Hypocotyl Segments,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 81, No. 2, 1986, pp. 651-655. doi:10.1104/pp.81.2.651

[21]   H. Hu and P. H. Brown, “Localization of Boron in Cell Walls of Squash and Tobacco and its Association with Pectin: Evidence for a Structural Role of Boron in the Cell Wall,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 105, 1994, pp. 681689.

[22]   W. M. Dugger, “Boron in Plant Metabolism,” In: A. Lauchli and R. L. Beileski, Eds., Encylopedia of Plant Physiology, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Vol. 15B, 1983, pp. 626-650.

[23]   R. A. Dixon, “Isoflavonoids: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biological Functions,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 773-823.

[24]   Y. Wang, M. Hamburger, J. Gueho and K. Hostettmann, “Antimicrobial Flavonoids from Psiadia trinervia and their Methylated and Acetylated Derivatives,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 28, No. 9, 1989, pp. 2323-2327. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97976-7

[25]   M. M. Parvez, K. Tomita-Yokotani, Y. Fujii, T. Konishi and T. Iwashina, “Effects of Quercetin and Its Seven Derivatives on the Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Neurospora crassa,” Biochemistry System Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2004, pp. 631-635. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2003.12.002

[26]   V. Lattanzio, M. Veronica, T. Lattanzio and A. Cardinali, “Role of Phenolics in the Resistance Mechanisms of Plants against Fungal Pathogens and Insects,” In: F. Imperato, Ed., Phytochemistry: Advances in Research, Research Signpost, Kerala, 2006, pp. 23-67.

[27]   A. R. Knaggs, “The Biosynthesis of Shikimate Metabolites,” Natural Product Reports, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2001, pp. 334-355. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2003.12.002

[28]   T. Aoki, T. Akashi, and S. Ayabe, “Flavonoids of Leguminous Plants Structure, Biological Activity, and Biosynthesis,” Journal of Plant Research, Vol. 113, 2008, p. 475.

[29]   D. A. Whiting, “Natural Phenolic Compounds 1900-2000: A Bird’s Eye View of a Century’s Chemistry,” Natural Production Report, Vol. 18, 2000, pp. 583-606.

[30]   K. L. Fritz, C. M. Seppanen, M. S. Kurzer and A. S. Csallany, “The in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Isoflavones in Human Subjects,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2003, pp. 479-487. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(03)00005-8

[31]   A. P. Wickens, “Ageing and the Free Radical Theory,” Respiratory Physiology, Vol. 128, No. 3, 1994, pp. 379391. doi:10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00313-9

[32]   O. Yu and B. McGonigle, “Metabolic Engineering of Isoflavone Biosynthesis,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 86, 2005, pp. 147-190. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(05)86003-1

[33]   S. Dhaubhadel, M. Gijzen, P. Moy and M. Farhangkhoee, “Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Critical Role of CHS7 and CHS8 Genes for Isoflavonoid Synthesis in Soybean Seeds,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 143, No. 1, 2007, pp. 326338. doi:10.1104/pp.106.086306

[34]   T. Akashi, T. Aoki and S. Ayabe, “Cloning and Functional Expression of a Cytochrome P450 cDNA Encoding 2-hydroxyisoflavanone Synthase Involved in Biosynthesis of the Isoflavonoid Skeleton in Licorice,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 121, No. 3, 1999, pp. 821-828. doi:10.1104/pp.121.3.821

[35]   C. L. Steele, M. Gijzen, D. Qutob and R. A. Dixon, “Molecular Characterization of the Enzyme Catalyzing the Aryl Migration Reaction of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis in Soybean,” Archives in Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 367, No. 1, 1999, pp. 146-150. doi:10.1006/abbi.1999.1238

[36]   W. Jung, O. Yu, S. C. Lau, D. P. O’Keefe, J. Odell and G. Fader, “Identification and Expression of Isoflavone Synthase, the Key Enzyme for Biosynthesis of Isoflavones in Legumes,” National Biotechnology, Vol. 18, 2000, pp. 208-212. doi:10.1038/72671

[37]   L. Fan, R. Linker, S. Gepstein, E. Tanimoto, R. Yamamoto and P. M. Neumann, “Progressive Inhibition by Water Deficit of Cell Wall Extensibility and Growth Along the Elongation Zone of Maize Roots is Related to Increased Lignin Metabolism and Progressive Stelar Accumulation of Wall Phenolics,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 140, No. 2, 2006, pp. 603-612. doi:10.1104/pp.105.073130

[38]   D. Vincent, C. Lapierre, B. Pollet, G. Cornic, L. Negroni and M. Zivy, “Water Deficits Affect Caffeate O-methyltransferase, Lignification, and Related Enzymes in Maize Leaves. A Proteomic Ivestigation,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 137, No. 3, 2005, pp. 949-960. doi:10.1104/pp.104.050815

[39]   P. J. C. Alvarez, F. C. Krzyzanowski, J. M. G. Mandarino and J. B. Franca-Neto, “Relationship between Soybean Seed Coat Lignin Content and Resistance to Mechanical Damage,” Seed Science and Technology, No. 25, 1997, pp. 209-214.

[40]   K. Yoshimura, A. Masuda, M. Kuwano, A. Yokota and K. Akashi, “Programmed Proteome Response for Drought Avoidance/Tolerance in the Root of a C-3 Xerophyte (Wild Watermelon) Under Water Deficits,” Plant Cell Physiology, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2008, pp. 226-241. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcm180

[41]   L. Bok-Rye, K. Kil-Yong, J. Woo-Jin, A. Jean-Christophe, O. Alain and K. Tae-Hwan, “Peroxidases and Lignification in Relation to the Intensity of Water-deficit Stress in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.),” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 58, No. 6, 2007, pp. 12711279. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl280

[42]   W. R. Fehr, C. E. Caviness, D. T. Burmood and J. S. Pennington, “Stage of Development Descriptions for Soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill,” Crop Science, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1971, pp. 929-931. doi:10.2135/cropsci1971.0011183X001100060051x

[43]   G, Lohse, “Microanalytical Azomethine-H Method for Boron Determination in Plant Tissue,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1982, pp. 127-134. doi:10.1080/00103628209367251

[44]   M. K. John, H. H. Chuah and J. H. Neufeld, “Application of Improved Azomethine-H Method to the Determination of Boron in Soils and Plants,” Analytical Letters, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1975, pp. 559-568. doi:10.1080/00032717508058240

[45]   F. C. Krzyzanowski, J. B. Franca-Neto, J. M. G. Mandarino and M. Kaster, “Comparison between two Gravimetric Methods to Determine the Lignin Content in Soybean Seed Coat,” Seed Science and Technology, No. 29, 2001, pp. 619-624.

[46]   V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of Total Phenolic with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 16, 1965, pp. 44-158.

[47]   B. J. Xu and S. K. C. Chang “A Comparative Study on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Legumes as Affected by Extraction Solvents,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. S159-S166. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00260.x

[48]   M. J. Morrison, E. R. Cober, M. F. Saleem, N. B. McLaughlin, J. Fregeau-Reid, B. L. Ma, W. Yan and L. Woodrow, “Changes in Isoflavone Concentration with 58 Years of Genetic Improvement of Short-Season Soybean Cultivars in Canada,” Crop Science, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2008, pp. 2201-2208. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.01.0023

[49]   T. Sato, K. Eguchi, T. Hatano and Y. Nishiba, “Use of Near-Infra Red Reflectance spectroscopy for the Estimation of Isoflavone Contents of Soybean Seeds,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2008, pp. 481-486. doi:10.1626/pps.11.481

[50]   J. R. Wilcox and R. M. Shibles, “Interrelationships among Seed Quality Attributes in Soybean,” Crop Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2001, pp. 11-14. doi:10.2135/cropsci2001.41111x

[51]   SAS, “SAS 9.1 TS Level 1M3, Windows Version 5.1.2600,” SAS Institute, Cary, 2001.

[52]   J. M. Ruiz, G. Bretones, M. Baghour, A. Belakbir and L. Romero, “Relationship between Boron and Phenolic Metabolism in Tobacco Leaves,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1998, pp. 269-272. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)01132-1

[53]   J. M. Ruiz, P. C. Garcia, R. M. Rivero and L. Romero, “Response of Phenolic Metabolism to the Application of Carbendazim Plus Boron in Tobacco,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 106, No. 2, 1999, pp. 151-157. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1999.106201.x

[54]   D. H. Lewis, “Boron, Lignification and the Origin of Vascular Plants—A Unified Hypothesis,” New Phytologist, Vol. 84, No. 2, 1980, pp. 209-229. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1980.tb04423.x

[55]   D. G. Blevins and K. M. Lukaszewski, “Boron in Plant Structure and Function,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 49, 1998, pp. 481-500. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.481

[56]   J. P. Ride, “Cell Wall and other Structural Barriers in Defence,” In: J. A. Callow, Ed., Biochemical Plant Pathology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken, 1983, pp. 215-235.

[57]   I. Cakmak and V. Romheld, “Boron Deficiency-induced Impairments of Cellular Functions in Plants,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 193, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 71-83. doi:10.1023/A:1004259808322

[58]   K. M. Lukaszewski nad D. G. Blevins, “Root Growth Inhibition in Boron-deficient or Aluminium-Stressed Squash May Be a Result of Impaired Ascorbate Metabolism,” Plant Physiol, Vol. 112, 1996, pp. 1135-1140.

[59]   J. J. L. Cilliers and V. L. Singleton, “Autoxidative Phenolic Ring Opening under Alkaline Conditions as a Model for Natural Polyphenols in Food,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 38, No. 9, 1990, pp. 1797-1798. doi:10.1021/jf00099a003

[60]   N. Bellaloui and P. H. Brown, “Cultivar Differences in Boron Uptake and Distribution in Celery (Apium graveolens), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Plant and Soil, Vol. 198, No. 2, 1998, pp. 153-158. doi:10.1023/A:1004343031242

[61]   J. Parr and M. J. C. Rhodes, “Natural Plant Defense Mechanisms,” In: L. G. Copping, Ed., Protection Agents from Nature, Royal Society of Chemistry Education, London, 1996.

[62]   H. Hu, P. H. Brown and J. M. Labavitch, “Species Variability in Boron Requirement is Correlated with Cell Wall Pectin,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1996, pp. 227-232. doi:10.1093/jxb/47.2.227

[63]   T. Matoh, “Boron in Plant Cell Walls,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 193, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 59-70. doi:10.1023/A:1004207824251

[64]   I. Cakmak, H. Kurz and H. Marschner, “Short-Term Effects of Boron, Germanium, and High Light Intensity on Membrane Permeability in Boron Deficient Leaves of Sunflower,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 95, No. 1, 1995, pp. 11-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb00801.x

[65]   P. H. Brown, N. Bellaloui, M. A. Wimmer, E. S. Bassil, J. Ruiz, H. Hu, H. Pfeffer, F. Dannel and V. Romheld, “Boron in Plant Biology,” Plant Biology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2002, pp. 205-223. doi:10.1055/s-2002-25740

[66]   J. O. Bennett, O. Yu, L. G. Heatherly and H. B. Krishna, “Accumulation of Genistein and Daidzein, Soybean Isoflavones Implicated in Promoting Human Health, Is Significantly Elevated by Irrigation,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 25, 2004, pp. 7574-7579. doi:10.1021/jf049133k

[67]   A. M. Al-Tawaha, P. Seguin, D. L. Smith and R. B. Bonnell, “Irrigation Level Affects Isoflavone Concentrations of Early Maturing Soya Bean Cultivars,” Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, Vol. 193, No. 4, 2007, pp. 238-246. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00263.x

[68]   V. V. Lozovaya, A. V. Lygin, A. V. Ulanov, R. L. Nelson, J. Dayde and A. M. Widholm, “Effect of Temperature and Soil Moisture Status during Seed Development on Soybean Seed Isoflavone Concentration and Composition,” Crop Science, Vol. 45, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1934-1940. doi:10.2135/cropsci2004.0567

[69]   S. J. Lee, J. K. Ahn, S. H. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. J. Han and M. Y. Jung, “Variation in Isoflavone of Soybean Cultivars with Location and Storage Duration,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, 2003, pp. 3383-3389.

[70]   S. J. Lee, W. K. Yan, J. K. Ahn, I. M. Chung, “Effects of Year, Site, Genotype and their Interactions on Various Soybean Isoflavones. Field Crop Research, Vol. 81, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 181-192. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00220-4

[71]   C. Tsukamoto, S. Shimada, K. Igita, S. Kudou, M. Kokubun, K. Okubo and K. Kitamura, “Factors Affecting Isoflavones Content in Soybean Seeds: Changes in Isoflavones, Saponins, and Composition of Fatty Acids at Different Temperatures during Seed Development,” Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1995, pp. 1184-1192. doi:10.1021/jf00053a012

[72]   J. J. Gutierrez-Gonzalez, S. K. Guttikonda, L.-S. P. Tran, D. L. Aldrich, R. Zhong, O. Yu, H. T. Nguyen and D. A. Sleper, “Differential Expression of Isoflavone Biosynthetic Genes in Soybean during Water Deficits,” Plant Cell Physiology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2010, pp. 936-948. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcq065

[73]   U. A. Hartwig, C. A. Maxwell, C. M. Joseph and D. A. Phillips, “Chrysoeriol and Luteolin Released from Alfalfa Seeds Induce Nod Genes in Rhizobium meliloti,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 92, No. 1, 1990, pp. 116-122. doi:10.1104/pp.92.1.116

[74]   A. Hou, P. Chen, J. Alloatti, D. Li, L. Mozzoni, B. Zhang and A. Shi, “Genetic Variability of Seed Sugar Content in Worldwide Soybean Germplasm Collections,” Crop Science, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2009, pp. 903-912. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.05.0256

[75]   A. S. Malik, O. Boyko, N. Atkar and W. F. Young, “A Comparative Study of MR Imaging Profile of Titanium Pedicle Screws,” Acta Radiologica, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2001, pp. 291-293. doi:10.1080/028418501127346846

 
 
Top