Back
 FNS  Vol.3 No.4 , April 2012
Proximate Composition, Mineral and Vitamin Content of Some Wild Plants Used as Spices in Cameroon
Abstract: The aim of this work was to contribute to our knowledge of the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin content of 20 edible wild plants used as spices in Cameroon. The plant species were collected from 3 different markets in the West Region of Cameroon and analysed for their content of crude proteins, and lipid, ash, moisture, available sugars, total phenols, carotenoids, minerals (Ca, Zn, K, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu and Se), and vitamins (A, E and C) as well as for their pH and colour. Results revealed that all the plants were low in moisture (7.7 to 10.5 g/100 g) but high in ash content (7.7 to 10.5 g/100 g). Hua gabonii (bark) (1594.5 mg/100 g) was relative source of calcium, Echinops giganteus (206.4 mg/100 g) exhibited the highest level of iron and Scorodophleus zenkeri (310.0 μg/100 g) the highest level of selenium. Generally all the plants were found to contain low levels of Zn, Cu and Mg. Wide variations were observed for the pro- teins and available sugars among the samples. The lipid content of some of the plants were surprisingly relatively high as was the case with Monodora myristica (53.4 g/100 g), Xylopia aethiopica (33.7 g/100 g), Fagara leprieuri (32.1 g/100 g), and Aframomum daniellii (23.1 g/100 g). All the plants were rich in phenols, carotenoids, vitamin E and C. They are dark in colour and in solution they tended to provoke a fair acidification.
Cite this paper: A. Bouba, N. Njintang, H. Foyet, J. Scher, D. Montet and C. Mbofung, "Proximate Composition, Mineral and Vitamin Content of Some Wild Plants Used as Spices in Cameroon," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 423-432. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.34061.
References

[1]   U. R. Susheela, “Handbook of Spices, Seasoning, and Flavorings,” TECHNOMIC Publishing Co., Inc., Lancaster, 2000, p. 329.

[2]   J. Bitting and P. W. Sherman, “Antimicrobial Functions of Spices—Why Some Like It Hot,” Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No. 1, 1998, pp. 3-49. doi:10.1086/420058

[3]   A. A. Barakat, A. O. Maslat and M. M. AL-Kofahi, “Element Analysis and Biological Studies on Ten Oriental Spices Using XRF and Ames Test,” Journal of Trace Element Medicine Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2003, pp. 85-90. doi:10.1016/S0946-672X(03)80003-2

[4]   H. R. H. Takruri and A. F. M. Dameh, “Study of the Nutritional Value of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L),” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 76, No. 3, 1998, pp. 404-410. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76:3<404::AID-JSFA964>3.0.CO;2-L

[5]   C. Gopalan, B. V. Ramasastri, S. C. Balasubramanian, B. S. Narsinagarao, Y. G. Deosthale and K. C. Pant, “Nutritive Value of Indian Foods,” India National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad,1999.

[6]   J. S. Pruthi, “Quality Assurance in Spices and Spice Products, Modern Methods of Analysis,” Allied Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, 1999.

[7]   C. M. F. Mbofung, J. M. Gee and J. D. Knight, “Fatty Acid Profile of Some Cameroonian Spices,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 66, No. 2, 1994, pp. 213-216. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740660216

[8]   C. Tchiegang and D. Mbougueng, “Composition Chimique des Epices Utilisées dans la Préparation du na’a poh et du kui de l’Ouest Cameroun,” Tropicultura, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005, pp. 193-200.

[9]   A Abdou Bouba, N. Y. Njintang, J. Scher and C. M. F. Mbofung, “Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Potential of Twenty Cameroonian Spices,” Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2010, pp. 213-224. doi:10.5251/abjna.2010.1.3.213.224

[10]   AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 1990.

[11]   Y. N. Njintang, C. M. F. Mbofung, F. Balaam, P. Kitissou and J. Scher, “Effect of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Flour Addition on the Functional and Alveographic Properties of Wheat Flour and Dough,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 88, No. 2, 2008, pp. 273-279. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3085

[12]   J. Folch, M. Lees and G. S. H. Sloane, “A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissue,” Journal of Biolology and Chemistry, Vol. 226, 1957, pp. 497-509.

[13]   S. Skunjins, “Handbook for ICP-AES (Varian-Vista), A Short Guide to Vista Series ICP-AES Operation,” Version 1.0., Varian International AG, 1998.

[14]   AACC, “Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists,” The Association. St. Paul, 1995, pp. 40-71.

[15]   D. B. Milne, and J. Botnen, “Retinol, α-Tocopherol, Lycopene, and αand β-Carotene Simultaneously Determined in Plasma by Isocratic Liquid Chromatography,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 32, 1986, pp. 874-876.

[16]   A. P. De Leenheer, H. J. Nelis, W. E. Lambert and R. M. Bauwen, “Chromatography of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Clinical Chemistry,” Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 429, 1988, pp. 3-58.

[17]   V. Raghu, P. Kalpana and K. Srinivasan, “Comparison of Ascorbic Acid Content of Emblica officinalis Fruits Determined by Different Analytical Methods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2007, pp. 529-533. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2007.02.006

[18]   X. Gao, M. Ohlander, N. Jeppsson, L. Bj?rk, V. Trajkovski, “Changes in Antioxidant Effects and Their Relationship to Phytonutrients in Fruits of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during Maturation,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1485-1490. doi:10.1021/jf991072g

[19]   J. O. Amarteifio and D. Moholo, “The Chemical Composition of Four Legumes Consumed in Botswana,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998, pp. 329-332. doi:10.1006/jfca.1998.0595

[20]   M. Holse, S. Husted and A. Hansen, “Chemical Composition of Marama Bean (Tylosema esculentum) A Wild African Bean with Unexploited Potential,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2010, pp. 648-657. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2010.03.006

[21]   I. E. Ezeagu and M. D. Ibegbu, “Biochemical and Nutritional Potential of Ukpa: A Variety of Tropical Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus) from Nigeria—A Short Report,” Poland Journal of Food Nutrition Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, 2010, pp. 231-235.

[22]   J. L. Guil-Guerrero and M. M. Rebolloso-Fuentes, “Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Varieties,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2009, pp. 123-129. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.10.012

[23]   O. Hels, T. Larsen, L. P. Christensen, U. Kidmose, N. Hassan and S. H. Thilsted, “Contents of Iron, Calcium, Zinc and b-Carotene In Commonly Consumed Vegetables in Bangladesh,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2004, pp. 587-595. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2003.08.007

[24]   L. Jayakody, R. Hoover, Q. Liu and E. Weber, “Studies on Tuber and Root Starches. I. Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Innala (Solenostemon rotundifolius) Starches Grown in Sri Lanka,” Food Research International, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2005, pp. 615-629. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2004.11.015

[25]   T. Guevara-Figueroa., H. Jimenez-Islas., M. L. ReyesEscogido, A. G. Mortensen, B. B. Laursen., L-W. Lin, A. De Leon-Rodr?guez, I. S. Fomsgaard and A. P. Barba de la Rosa, “Proximate Composition, Phenolic Acids, and Flavonoids Characterization of Commercial and Wild Nopal (Opuntia spp),” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 23, 2010, pp. 525-532.

[26]   M. B. Devani, I. Shishoo, S. A. Shah and B. N. Suhagia, “Spectrophotometric Method for the Micro Determination of Nitrogen in Kjeldahl Digest,” Journal of Association Official Analytical Chemists, Vol. 72, No. 6, 1989, pp. 953-956.

[27]   K. Huang, C. C. Akoh and C. M. Erickson, “Enzymatic Modification of Melon Seed Oil: Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1994, pp. 2646-2648. doi:10.1021/jf00047a050

[28]   J. L. Guil, J. J. G. Martinez and M. E. Isasa, “Mineral Nutrient Composition of Edible Wild Plants,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998, pp. 322-328. doi:10.1006/jfca.1998.0594

[29]   M. ?zcan, “Mineral Contents of Some Plants Used as Condiments in Turkey,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 84, No. 3, 2004, pp. 437-440. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00263-2

[30]   M. M. Ozcan and M. Akbulut, “Estimation of Minerals, Nitrate and Nitrite Contents of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Used as Spices, Condiments and Herbal Tea,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 106, No. 2, 2007, 852-858. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.045

[31]   P. Ekholm, H. Reinivuo, P. Mattila, H. Pakkala, J. Koponen, A. Happonen, J. Hellstr?m and M. Ovaskainen, “Changes in the Mineral and Trace Element Contents of Cereals, Fruits and Vegetables in Finland,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2007, pp. 487-495. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2007.02.007

[32]   D.A. Dashak, M. L. Dawang and N. B. Lucas, “An Assessment of the Proximate Chemical Composition of Locally Produced Spices Known as Dadawa Basso and Dadawa Kalwa from Three Markets in Plateau State of Nigeria,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2001, pp. 231-235. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00205-9

[33]   P. Sirichakwal, P. Puwastien, J. Polngam and R. Kongkachuichai, “Selenium Content of Thai Foods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2005, pp. 47-59. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2003.10.010

[34]   K. Hwang, H. K. Park and C.-H. Ohe, “Selenium Content in Representative Korean Foods,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2009, pp. 117-122. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.11.009

[35]   P. M. Rayman, “The Importance of Selenium to Human Health,” Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9225, 2000, pp. 233-241. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02490-9

[36]   E. A. Shimelis and S. K. Rakshit, “Proximate Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Improved Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties Grown in Ethiopia,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2005, pp. 331-338. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2004.07.002

[37]   M. L. Slattery, J. Benson, K., Ma K.N. Curtin, D. Schaeffer and J. D. Potter, “Carotenoids and Colon Cancer,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, 2000, pp. 575-582.

[38]   G. A. Agbor, J. E. Oben, J. Y. Ngogang, X. X. Cai and A. J. Vinson, “Antioxidant Capacity of Some Herbs/Spices from Cameroon: A Comparative Study of Two Methods,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 17, 2005, pp. 6819-6824. doi:10.1021/jf050445c

[39]   R. Amarowicz, R. B. Pegg, P. Rahimi-Moghaddam, B. Barld and J. A. Weil, “Free-Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Plant Species from the Canadian Prairies,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 84, No. 4, 2004, pp. 551-562. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00278-4

[40]   A. Rusaczonek, F. ?widerski, B. and Waszkiewicz-Robak, “Antioxidant Properties of Tea and Herbal Infusions,” Poland Journal of Food Nutrition Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2010, pp. 33-35.

[41]   J. M. D. Gomez-Coronadoa, E. Ibanez, J. F. Rupereza and C. Barbasa, “Tocopherol Measurement in Edible Products of Vegetable Origin,” Journal of Chromatography Analysis, Vol. 1054, 2004, pp. 227-233.

[42]   A. A. Franke, J. L. Custer, C. Arakaki and P. S. Murphy, “Vitamin C and Flavonoid Levels of Fruits and Vegetables Consumed in Hawaii,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-35. doi:10.1016/S0889-1575(03)00066-8

 
 
Top