OJRad  Vol.2 No.1 , March 2012
Quantitative Flow Relaxographic Angiography
Author(s) Jing-Huei Lee*
ABSTRACT
A powerful method, termed flow relaxography, allowing the practical and accurate determination of the water proton MR signal relaxation time distributions has been recently introduced with a phantom, having both flowing and non-flowing water. It was demonstrated that this method can discriminate the signals from the flowing and non-flowing spins, since flow affects the apparent T1 (T1*) value. In this report, it is demonstrated that this technique is effective also in the human leg in vivo. Flow relaxographic angiography is presented for the first time. This technique promises to accomplish the twin goals of flow studies in medical MRI, to display vascular anatomy and measure its blood flow rate, in the same image.

Cite this paper
J. Lee, "Quantitative Flow Relaxographic Angiography," Open Journal of Radiology, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 31-38. doi: 10.4236/ojrad.2012.21006.
References
[1]   T. J. Masaryk, J. S. Lewin and G. Laub, “Magnetic Resonance Angiography,” In: D. D. Stark and W. G. Bradley, Eds., Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, 1992, pp. 299-334.

[2]   E. M. Haacke, W. Lin and D. Li, “Flow in Whole Body Magnetic Resonance,” In: D. M. Grant, R. K. Harris, Eds., Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 2037-2047.

[3]   J.-H. Lee, X. Li, M. K. Sammi and C. S. Springer, “Using Flow Relaxography to Elucidate Flow Relaxivity,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 136, No. 1, 1999, pp. 102-113. doi:10.1006/jmre.1998.1629

[4]   E. L. Hahn, “Detection of Sea-Water by Nuclear Precession,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1960, pp. 776-777. doi:10.1029/JZ065i002p00776

[5]   P. R. Moran, “A Flow Velocity Zeugatographic Interlace for NMR Imaging in Humans,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1982, pp. 197-203. doi:10.1016/0730-725X(82)90170-9

[6]   J. W. Van Goethem, L. van den Hauwe, O. Ozsarlak, P. M. Parizel, “Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography,” JBR-BTR, Vol. 86, 2003, pp. 340-344.

[7]   J. R. Singer, “Blood Flow Rates by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements,” Science, Vol. 130, 3389, 1959, pp. 1652-1653. doi:10.1126/science.130.3389.1652

[8]   O. C. Morse, J. R. Singer, “Blood Velocity Measurements in Intact Subjects,” Science, Vol. 170, No. 3956, 1970, pp. 440-441. doi:10.1126/science.170.3956.440

[9]   J. R. Singer and L. E. Crooks, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Blood Flow Measurements in the Human Brain,” Science, Vol. 221, No. 4611, 1983, pp. 654-656. doi:10.1126/science.6867733

[10]   P. M. Denis, G. J. Béné and R. C. Exterman, “Steady- State Observation of a Transitory Nuclear Resonance Phenomenon,” Archives of Sciences, Vol. 5, 1952, pp. 32- 34.

[11]   J. R. Singer, “Flow Rates Using Nuclear or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Techniques with Applications to Biological and Chemical Processes,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1960, pp. 125-127. doi:10.1063/1.1735386

[12]   M. A. Hemminga, P. A. De Jager and A. Sonneveld, “The Study of Flow by Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. I. Measurement of Flow Rates in the Presence of a Stationary Phase Using a Difference Method,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 27, 1977, pp. 359-370.

[13]   J. R. Singer, “NMR Diffusion and Flow Measurements and an Introduction to Spin Phase Graphing,” Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1978, pp. 281-291. doi:10.1088/0022-3735/11/4/001

[14]   H. C. Dorn, “Flow NMR,” In: D. M. Grant and R. K. Harris, Eds., Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, John Wiley & Sons, New York, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 2026-2036.

[15]   R. R. Edelman, H. P. Mattle, J. Kleefield and M. S. Silver, “Quantification of Blood Flow with Dynamic MR Imaging and Presaturation Bolus Tracking,” Radiology, Vol. 171, 1989, pp. 551-556.

[16]   J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, D. S. Williams and A. P. Koretsky, “Perfusion Imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1992, pp. 37-45. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910230106

[17]   K. K. Kwong, D. A. Chesler, R. M. Weisskoff, K. M. Donahue, T. L. Davis, L. Ostergaard, T. A. Campbell and B. R. Rosen, “MR Perfusion Studies with T1 Weighted Echo Planar Imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1995, pp. 878-887. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910340613

[18]   R. R. Edelman, B. Siewert, D. G. Darby, V. Thangaraj, A. C. Nobre, M. M. Mesulam and S. Warach, “Qualitative Mapping of Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Localization with Echo Planar MR Imaging and Signal Targeting with Alternating Radio Frequency,” Radiology, Vol. 192, No. 2, 1994, pp. 513-520.

[19]   K. K. Kwong, “Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Echo Planar Imaging,” Magnetic Resonance Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-20.

[20]   S.-G. Kim, “Quantification of Relative Blood Flow Change by Flow-Sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (Fair) Technique: Application to Functional Mapping,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1995, pp. 293-301. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910340303

[21]   S.-G. Kim and N. V. Tsekos, “Perfusion Imaging by a Flow-Sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (Fair) Technique: Application to Functional Brain Imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1997, pp. 425-435. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910370321

[22]   E. C. Wong, R. B. Buxton and L. R. Frank, “Implementation of Quantitative Perfusion Imaging Techniques for Functional Brain Mapping Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling,” NMR in Biomedicine, Vol. 10, No. 4-5, 1997, pp. 237-249. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199706/08)10:4/5<237::AID-NBM475>3.0.CO;2-X

[23]   J.-H. Lee, C. Labadie, C. S. Springer and G. S. Harbinson, “Two-Dimensional Inverse Laplace Transform NMR: Altered Relaxation Times Allow Detection of Exchange Correlation,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 115, No. 17, 1993, pp. 7761-7764. doi:10.1021/ja00070a022

[24]   C. Labadie, J.-H. Lee, G. Vétek and C. S. Springer, “Relaxographic Imaging,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Series B, Vol. 105, No. 2, 1994, pp. 99-112. doi:10.1006/jmrb.1994.1109

[25]   J.-H. Lee, “PURR-TURBO: A Novel Pulse Sequence for Longitudinal Relaxographic Imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2000, pp. 773-777. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(200005)43:5<773::AID-MRM23>3.0.CO;2-7

[26]   M. K. Sammi, C. A. Felder, J. S. Fowler, J.-H. Lee, A. V. Levy, X. Li, J. Logan, I. Palyka, W. D. Rooney, N. D. Volkow, G.-J. Wang and C. S. Springer, “The Intimate Combination of Low- and High-Resolution Image Data: I. Real-Space PET and 1H2O MRI, PETAMRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1999, pp. 345- 360. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(199908)42:2<345::AID-MRM17>3.0.CO;2-E

[27]   M A. Hemminga, “Measurement of Flow Characteristics Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance,” In: T. L. James and A. R. Margulis, Eds., Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Radiology Research and Education Foundation, San Francisco, 1984, pp. 157-184.

[28]   F. W. Wehrli, A. Shimakawa, J. R. MacFall, L. Axel and W. Perman, “MR Imaging of Venous and Arterial Flow by a Selective Saturation-Resovery Spin Echo (SSRSE) Method,” Journal of Computer Tomography, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1985, pp. 537-545. doi:10.1097/00004728-198505000-00024

[29]   C. K. Holland, J. M. Brown, L. M. Scoutt and K. J. W. Taylor, “Lower Extremity Volumetric Arterial Blood Flow in Normal Subjects,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1079-1086. doi:10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00103-3

[30]   J.-H. Lee, M. K. Sammi and C. S. Springer, “Flow Relaxographic Angiography,” Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 8, 2000, p. 1828.

[31]   K. R. Thulborn, J. C. Waterton, P. M. Matthews and G. K. Radda, “Oxygenation Dependence of the Transverse Relaxation Time of Water Protons in Whole Blood at High Field,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—General Subjects, Vol. 714, No. 2, 1982, pp. 265-270. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(82)90333-6

[32]   M. J. Silvennoinen, M. I. Kettunen and R. A. Kauppinen, “Effects of Hematocrit and Oxygen Saturation Level on Blood Spin-Lattice Relaxation,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2003, pp. 568-571. doi:10.1002/mrm.10370

[33]   W. D. Rooney, G. Johnson, X. Li, E. R. Cohen, S. G. Kim, K. Ugurbil and C. S. Springer, “Magnetic Field and Tissue Dependencies of Human Brain Longitudinal 1H2O Relaxation in Vivo,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2007, pp. 308-318. doi:10.1002/mrm.21122

[34]   T. E. Yankeelov, W. D. Rooney, W. Huang, J. P. Dyke, X. Li, A. Tudorica, J.-H. Lee, J. A. Koutcher and C. S. Springer, “Evidence for Shutter-Speed Variation in CR Bolus-Tracking Studies of Human Pathology,” NMR Biomedicine, Vol. 18. No. 3, 2005, pp. 173-185. doi:10.1002/nbm.938

 
 
Top