JEMAA  Vol.4 No.3 , March 2012
Guided and Direct Wave Evaluation of Controlled Source Electromagnetic Survey Using Finite Element Method
Abstract
Deep target hydrocarbon detection is still challenging and expensive. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in seismic data do not correspond to economical hydrocarbon exploration. Due to unreliability in seismic data for the detection of DHIs, new methods have been investigated. Marine controlled source electromagnet (MCSEM) or Sea bed logging (SBL) is new method for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir. Sea bed logging has also the potential to reduce the risks of DHIs in deep sea environment. Modelling of real sea environment helps to reduce the further risks before drilling the oil wells. 3D electromagnetic (EM) modelling of seabed logging requires more accurate methods for the detection of hydrocarbon reservoir. Finite element method (FEM) is chosen for the modelling of seabed logging to get more precise EM response from hydrocarbon reservoir below 4000 m from seabed. FEM allows to investigate the total electric and magnetic fields instead of scattered electric and magnetic fields, which shows accurate and precise resistivity contrast below the seabed. From the modelling results, It was investigated that Hz field shows higher magni- tude with 342% than the Ex field. It was observed that 0.125 Hz frequency can be able to show better resistivity contrast of Hz field (31.30%) and Ex field (16.49%) at target depth of 1000 m below seafloor for our proposed model. Hz and Ex field delineation was found to decrease as target depth increased from 1000 m to 4000 m. At the target depth of 4000 m, no field delineation response was seen from the current electromagnetic (EM) antenna used by the industry. New EM antenna has been used to see the EM response for deep target hydrocarbon detection. It was investigated that novel EM antenna shows better delineation at 4000 m target depth for Ex and Hz field up to 10.3% and 15.1% respectively. Novel EM antenna also shows better Hz phase response (128.4%) than the Ex phase response (38.3%) at the target depth of 4000 m below the seafloor.

Cite this paper
N. Yahya, M. Akhtar, N. Nasir, M. Kashif, A. Shafie and H. Zaid, "Guided and Direct Wave Evaluation of Controlled Source Electromagnetic Survey Using Finite Element Method," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2012, pp. 135-146. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.43018.
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