Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-Time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution

Affiliation(s)

Institute of Innovative Physics in Fuzhou, Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.

Institute of Innovative Physics in Fuzhou, Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

By transforming the geodesic equation of the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein’s equation of gravity field to flat space-time for description, the revised Newtonian formula of gravity is obtained. The formula can also describe the motion of object with mass in gravity field such as the perihelion precession of the Mercury. The space-time singularity in the Einstein’s theory of gravity becomes the original point r = 0 in the Newtonian formula of gravity. The singularity problem of gravity in curved space-time is eliminated thoroughly. When the formula is used to describe the expansive universe, the revised Friedmann equation of cosmology is obtained. Based on it, the high red-shift of Ia supernova can be explained well. We do not need the hypotheses of the universe accelerating expansion and dark energy again. It is also unnecessary for us to assume that non-baryon dark material is 5 - 6 times more than normal baryon material in the universe if they really exist. The problem of the universal age can also be solved well. The theory of gravity returns to the traditional form of dynamic description and becomes normal one. The revised equation can be taken as the foundation of more rational cosmology.

By transforming the geodesic equation of the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein’s equation of gravity field to flat space-time for description, the revised Newtonian formula of gravity is obtained. The formula can also describe the motion of object with mass in gravity field such as the perihelion precession of the Mercury. The space-time singularity in the Einstein’s theory of gravity becomes the original point r = 0 in the Newtonian formula of gravity. The singularity problem of gravity in curved space-time is eliminated thoroughly. When the formula is used to describe the expansive universe, the revised Friedmann equation of cosmology is obtained. Based on it, the high red-shift of Ia supernova can be explained well. We do not need the hypotheses of the universe accelerating expansion and dark energy again. It is also unnecessary for us to assume that non-baryon dark material is 5 - 6 times more than normal baryon material in the universe if they really exist. The problem of the universal age can also be solved well. The theory of gravity returns to the traditional form of dynamic description and becomes normal one. The revised equation can be taken as the foundation of more rational cosmology.

Cite this paper

X. Mei and P. Yu, "Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-Time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution,"*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 6-18. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.21002.

X. Mei and P. Yu, "Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-Time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution,"

References

[1] N. Rosen, “General Relativity and Flat Space,” Physical Review, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1940, pp. 147-150. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.57.147

[2] Y. J. Wang and Z. M. Tang, “Theory and Effects of Gravitation,” Hunan Science and Technology Publishing Company, 1990, pp. 547-589.

[3] X. C. Mei, “The R-W Metric Has No Constant Curvature When Scalar Factor R(t) Changes with Time,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2011, pp. 177-182. doi:10.4236/ijaa.2011.14023

[4] E. A. Milne, “A Newtonian Expanding Universe,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 32, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1939-1948. doi:10.1023/A:1001997000979

[5] S. Weiberge, “Gravitation and Cosmology,” John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1984, pp. 608.

[6] C. Kittel, W. D. Knight and M. A. Ruderman, “Mechanics,” Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 1, 1973, McGraw- Hill, New York.

[7] X. C. Mei, “The Precise Inner Solutions of Gravity Field Equations of Hollow and Solid Spheres and the Theorem of Singularity,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2011, pp. 109-116. doi:10.4236/ijaa.2011.13016

[8] X. C. Mei, “Singularities of the Gravitational Fields of Static Thin Loop and Double Spheres,” Journal of Cosmology, Vol. 13, No. 27, 2011.

[9] Y. Q. Yu, “Physical Cosmology,” Beijing University Publishing Company, Beijing, 2002, pp. 104, 184.

[10] M. Bolte and C. J. Hogan, “Conflict Over the Age of the Universe,” Nature, 1995, Vol. 376, pp. 399-402. doi:10.1038/376399a0

[1] N. Rosen, “General Relativity and Flat Space,” Physical Review, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1940, pp. 147-150. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.57.147

[2] Y. J. Wang and Z. M. Tang, “Theory and Effects of Gravitation,” Hunan Science and Technology Publishing Company, 1990, pp. 547-589.

[3] X. C. Mei, “The R-W Metric Has No Constant Curvature When Scalar Factor R(t) Changes with Time,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2011, pp. 177-182. doi:10.4236/ijaa.2011.14023

[4] E. A. Milne, “A Newtonian Expanding Universe,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 32, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1939-1948. doi:10.1023/A:1001997000979

[5] S. Weiberge, “Gravitation and Cosmology,” John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1984, pp. 608.

[6] C. Kittel, W. D. Knight and M. A. Ruderman, “Mechanics,” Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 1, 1973, McGraw- Hill, New York.

[7] X. C. Mei, “The Precise Inner Solutions of Gravity Field Equations of Hollow and Solid Spheres and the Theorem of Singularity,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2011, pp. 109-116. doi:10.4236/ijaa.2011.13016

[8] X. C. Mei, “Singularities of the Gravitational Fields of Static Thin Loop and Double Spheres,” Journal of Cosmology, Vol. 13, No. 27, 2011.

[9] Y. Q. Yu, “Physical Cosmology,” Beijing University Publishing Company, Beijing, 2002, pp. 104, 184.

[10] M. Bolte and C. J. Hogan, “Conflict Over the Age of the Universe,” Nature, 1995, Vol. 376, pp. 399-402. doi:10.1038/376399a0