ABSTRACT In this paper a new method to improve performance of cooperative underwater acoustic (UWA) sensor networks will be introduced. The method is based on controlling and optimizing carrier frequencies which are used in data links between network nods. In UWA channels Pathloss and noise power spectrum density (psd) are related to carrier frequency. Therefore, unlike radio communications, in UWA Communications signal to noise ratio (SNR) is related to frequency besides propagation link length. In such channels an optimum frequency in whole frequency band and link lengths cannot be found. In Cooperative transmission, transmitter sends one copy of transmitted data packets to relay node. Then relay depending on cooperation scheme, amplifies or decodes each data packet and retransmit it to destination. Receiver uses and combines both received signals to estimate transmitted data. This paper wants to propose a new method to decrease network power consumptions by controlling and sub-optimizing transmission frequency based on link length. For this purpose, underwater channel parameters is simulated and analyzed in 1km to 10km lengths (midrange channel). Then link lengths sub categorized and in each category, optimum frequency is computed. With these sub optimum frequencies, sensors and base station can adaptively control their carrier frequencies based on link length and decrease network’s power consumptions. Finally Different Cooperative transmission schemes “Decode and Forward (DF)” and “Amplify and Forward (AF)”, are simulated in UWA wireless Sensor network with and without the new method. In receiver maximum ratio combiner (MRC) is used to combining received signals and making data estimations. Simulations show that the new method, called AFC cooperative UWA communication, can improve performance of underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks up to 40.14%.
Cite this paper
nullV. Vakily and M. Jannati, "A New Method to Improve Performance of Cooperative Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks via Frequency Controlled Transmission Based on Length of Data Links," Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 381-389. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2010.24050.
 M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communication Chan-nels: Propagation Models and Statistical Characterization,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 47, No. 1, January 2009, pp. 84-89.
M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Networks: Channel Models and Network Coding Based Lower Bound to Transmis-sion Power for Multicast,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 26, No. 9, December 2008, pp. 1708-1719.
V. T. Vakily and M. J. Jannati, “Performance of Cooperative Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks,” IC-CIA International Conference on Control Instrumentation and Automation, Tehran, 26-27 May 2010.
M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications,” IEEE Electro International, Boston, 5 May 1995.
M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, L. Freitag and M. Stojanovic, “Re-cent Advances in Underwater Acoustic Communications & Networking,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 2008, pp. 1-10.
R. E. Williams and H. F. Battestin, “Coherent Recombination of Acoustic Multipath Signals Propagated in the Deep Ocean,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 50, No. 6, 1971, pp. 1433-1442.
M. Stojanovic, J. A. Catipovic and J. G. Proakis, “Phase Coherent Digital Communications for Underwater Acoustic Channels,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 1994, pp. 100-111.
M. Stojanovic, J. A. Catipovic and J. G. Proakis, “Adaptive Multichannel Combining and Equalization for Underwater Acoustic Communications,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 94, No. 3, September 1993, pp. 1621-1631.
M. Stojanovic, J. A. Catipovic and J. G. Proakis, “Re-duced-Complexity Multichannel Processing of Underwater Acoustic Communication Signals,” The Journal of the Acous-tical Society of America, Vol. 98, No. 2, August 1995, pp. 961-972.
J. Catipovic. “Performance Limitations in Underwater Acoustic Telemetry,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3, July 1990, pp. 205-216.
T. Curtin, J. Bellingham, J. Catipovic and D. Webb, “Autono-mous Oceanographic Sampling Networks,” Oce- anography, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1993, pp. 86-94.
D. P. Brady and J. A. Catipovic, “Adaptive Multiuser Detection for Underwater Acoustical Channels,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 2, April 1994, pp. 158-165.
J. L. Talavage, T. E. Thiel and D. Brady, “An Efficient Store-and-Forward Protocol for a Shallow Water Acoustic Local Area Network,” Proceedings of the Oceans Engineering for Today’s Technology and Tomorrow’s Preservation (OCEANS’94), Brest, 13-16 September 1994, pp. I883-I888.
C. Bjerrum-Niese, L. Bjorno, M. A. Pinto and B. A. Quellec, “A Simulation Tool for High Data-Rate Acoustic Communica-tion in a Shallow-Water, Time Varying Channel,” IEEE Jour-nal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996, pp. 143-149.
M. Chitre, “A High-Frequency Warm Shallow Water Acoustic Communications Channel Model and Measurements,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 122, No. 5, 2007, pp. 2580-2586.
M. Badiey, B. G. Katsnelson, J. F. Lynch and S. Pereselkov, “Frequency Dependence and Intensity Fluctuations due to Shallow Water Internal Waves,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 122, No. 2, 2007, pp. 747-760.
M. A. Chitre, J. R. Potter and S. H. Ong, “Optimal and Near-Optimal Signal Detection in Snapping Shrimp Dominated Ambient Noise,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2006, pp. 497-503.
M. A. Chitre, J. R. Potter and S. H. Ong, “Viterbi Decoding of Convolutional Codes in Symmetric -stable Noise,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 55, No. 12, 2007, pp. 2230-2233.
J. Jubin and J. D. Tornow, “The DARPA Packet Radio Net-work Protocols,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, 1987, pp. 21-32.
G. G. Xie and J. H. Gibson, “A Network Layer Protocol for UANs to Address Propagation Delay Induced Performance Limitations,” MTS/IEEE Oceans’01 Conference, Boston, Vol. 4, 5-8 November 2001, pp. 2087-2094.
M. Stojanovic, “On the Relationship between Capacity and Distance in an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Com- munications Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, October 2007, pp. 34-43.
T. Cover and A. E. Gamal, “Capacity Theorems for the Relay Channel,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1979, pp. 572-584.
A. Host-Madsen and J. Zhang, “Capacity Bounds and Power Allocation for the Wireless Relay Channel,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2005, pp. 2020-2040.