Accurate Angle-of-Arrival Measurement Using Particle Swarm Optimization

ABSTRACT

As one of the major methods for location positioning, angle-of-arrival (AOA) estimation is a significant technology in radar, sonar, radio astronomy, and mobile communications. AOA measurements can be exploited to locate mobile units, enhance communication efficiency and network capacity, and support location-aided routing, dynamic network management, and many location-based services. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for AOA estimation in colored noise fields and harsh application scenarios. By modeling the unknown noise covariance as a linear combination of known weighting matrices, a maximum likelihood (ML) criterion is established, and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) paradigm is designed to optimize the cost function. Simulation results demonstrate that the paired estimator PSO-ML significantly outperforms other popular techniques and produces superior AOA estimates.

As one of the major methods for location positioning, angle-of-arrival (AOA) estimation is a significant technology in radar, sonar, radio astronomy, and mobile communications. AOA measurements can be exploited to locate mobile units, enhance communication efficiency and network capacity, and support location-aided routing, dynamic network management, and many location-based services. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for AOA estimation in colored noise fields and harsh application scenarios. By modeling the unknown noise covariance as a linear combination of known weighting matrices, a maximum likelihood (ML) criterion is established, and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) paradigm is designed to optimize the cost function. Simulation results demonstrate that the paired estimator PSO-ML significantly outperforms other popular techniques and produces superior AOA estimates.

KEYWORDS

Array Signal Processing, Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) Estimation, Location Positioning, Particle Swarm Optimization, Smart Antennas

Array Signal Processing, Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) Estimation, Location Positioning, Particle Swarm Optimization, Smart Antennas

Cite this paper

nullM. Li, K. Ho and G. Hayward, "Accurate Angle-of-Arrival Measurement Using Particle Swarm Optimization,"*Wireless Sensor Network*, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 358-364. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2010.24047.

nullM. Li, K. Ho and G. Hayward, "Accurate Angle-of-Arrival Measurement Using Particle Swarm Optimization,"

References

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[2] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System Using AOA,” Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2003, San Francisco, 30 March-3 April 2003, pp. 1734-1743.

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[5] Z. Gu and E. Gunawan, “Radiolocation in CDMA Cellular System Based on Joint Angle and Delay Estimation,” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 23, 2002, pp. 297-309.

[6] L. Cong and W. Zhuang, “Hybrid TDOA/AOA Mobile User Location for Wideband CDMA Cellular Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, 2002, pp. 439-447.

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[12] H. Koubaa, “Reflections on Smart Antennas for MAC Protocols in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of European Wireless’02, 2002, pp. 25-28.

[13] H. Singh and S. Singh, “Tone Based MAC Protocol for Use with Adaptive Array Antennas,” Proceedings of IEEE WCNC, 2004, pp. 1246-1251.

[14] R. Schmidt, “Multiple Emitter Location and Signal Parameter Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, 1986, pp. 276-280.

[15] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “A Refined Genetic Algorithm for Accurate and Reliable DOA Estimation with a Sensor Array,” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 43, 2007, pp. 533-547.

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[17] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Dimension Reduction for Array Processing with Robust Interference Cancellation,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 42, 2006, pp. 103-112.

[18] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Angle-of-Arrival Estimation for Localization and Communication in Wireless Networks,” Proceedings of 16th European Signal Processing Conference, Lausanne, 2008.

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[20] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Source Bearing and Steering- Vector Estimation Using Partially Calibrated Arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 45, 2009, pp.1361-1372.

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[28] R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Comparing Inertia Weights and Constriction Factors in Particle Swarm Optimization,” Proceedings of 2000 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, San Diego, 2000, pp. 84-88.

[29] J. F. Böhme and D. Kraus, “On Least Squares Methods for Direction of Arrival Estimation in the Presence of Unknown Noise Fields,” Proceedings of ICASSP’88, New York, 1988, pp. 2833-2836.

[30] P. Stoica and A. Nehorai, “Performance Study of Conditional and Unconditional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 38, 1990, pp. 1783-1795.

[1] G. Mao, B. Fidan and B. Anderson, “Wireless Sensor Network Localization Techniques,” Computer Networks, Vol. 51, 2007, pp. 2529-2553.

[2] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System Using AOA,” Proceedings of IEEE Infocom 2003, San Francisco, 30 March-3 April 2003, pp. 1734-1743.

[3] M. Gavish and A. Weiss, “Performance Analysis of Bear- ing-Only Target Location Algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 28, 1992, pp. 817-828.

[4] T. Biedka, J. Reed and B. Woerner, “Direction Finding Methods for CDMA Systems,” Proceedings of 13th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, 1996, pp. 637-641.

[5] Z. Gu and E. Gunawan, “Radiolocation in CDMA Cellular System Based on Joint Angle and Delay Estimation,” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 23, 2002, pp. 297-309.

[6] L. Cong and W. Zhuang, “Hybrid TDOA/AOA Mobile User Location for Wideband CDMA Cellular Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, 2002, pp. 439-447.

[7] J. Ash and L. Potter, “Sensor Network Localization via Received Signal Strength Measurements with Directional Antennas,” Proceedings of 42th Annual Allenton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Cha- mpaign-Urbana, 2004, pp. 1861-1870.

[8] T. Chen, C. Chiu and T. Tu, “Mixing and Combining with AOA and TOA for the Enhanced Accuracy of Mobile Location,” Proceedings of 5th European Personal Mobile Communications Conference, Glasgow, 2003, pp. 276-280.

[9] M. H. Li, Y. L. Lu, H.-H. Chen, B. Wang and I.-M. Chen, “Angle of Arrival (AOA) Estimation in Wireless Networks,” In J. Feng, Ed., Wireless Networks - Research, Technology and Applications, Chapter 5, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York, 2009, pp. 135-164.

[10] J. Liberti and T. Rappaport, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications,” Prentice Hall, 1999.

[11] S. Bellofiore, J. Foutz, R. Govindarajula, I. Bahceci, C. Balanis, A. Spanias, J. Capone and T. Duman, “Smart Antenna System Analysis, Integration, and Performance for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs),” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, 2002, pp. 571-581.

[12] H. Koubaa, “Reflections on Smart Antennas for MAC Protocols in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of European Wireless’02, 2002, pp. 25-28.

[13] H. Singh and S. Singh, “Tone Based MAC Protocol for Use with Adaptive Array Antennas,” Proceedings of IEEE WCNC, 2004, pp. 1246-1251.

[14] R. Schmidt, “Multiple Emitter Location and Signal Parameter Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, 1986, pp. 276-280.

[15] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “A Refined Genetic Algorithm for Accurate and Reliable DOA Estimation with a Sensor Array,” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 43, 2007, pp. 533-547.

[16] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Improving the Performance of GA-ML DOA Estimator with a Resampling Scheme,” Signal Processing, Vol. 84, 2004, pp. 1813-1822.

[17] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Dimension Reduction for Array Processing with Robust Interference Cancellation,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 42, 2006, pp. 103-112.

[18] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Angle-of-Arrival Estimation for Localization and Communication in Wireless Networks,” Proceedings of 16th European Signal Processing Conference, Lausanne, 2008.

[19] R. C. Eberhart and J. Kennedy, “A New Optimizer Using Particle Swarm Theory,” Proceedings of 6th Symposium on Micro Machine and Human Science, Nagoya, 1995, pp. 39-43.

[20] M. H. Li and Y. L. Lu, “Source Bearing and Steering- Vector Estimation Using Partially Calibrated Arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 45, 2009, pp.1361-1372.

[21] J.-J. Fuchs, “Estimation of the Number of Signals in the Presence of Unknown Correlated Sensor Noise,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 40, 1992, pp. 1053-1061.

[22] B. Ottersten, M. Viberg, P. Stoica and A. Nehorai, “Exact and Large Sample Maximum Likelihood Techniques,” Radar Array Processing, In Haykin, S., Litva, J. and Shepherd, T.J. Eds., New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 99-152.

[23] F. Vanpoucke and A. Paulraj, “A Harmonic Noise Model for Direction Finding in Colored Ambient Noise,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 2, 1995, pp. 135-137.

[24] A. G. Jaffer, “Maximum Likelihood Direction Finding of Stochastic Sources: A Separable Solution,” Proceedings of ICASSP’88, New York, 1988, pp. 2893-2896.

[25] K. E. Parsopoulos and M. N. Vrahatis, “Recent Approaches to Global Optimization Problems through Particle Swarm Optimization,” Natural Computing, 2002, Vol. 1, pp. 235-306.

[26] R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Particle Swarm Optimization: Developments, Applications and Resources,” Proceedings of 2001 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Seoul, 2001, pp. 81-86.

[27] M. Clerc and J. Kennedy, “The Particle Swarm-Explo- sion, Stability and Convergence in a Multidimensional Complex Space,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 58-73.

[28] R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Comparing Inertia Weights and Constriction Factors in Particle Swarm Optimization,” Proceedings of 2000 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, San Diego, 2000, pp. 84-88.

[29] J. F. Böhme and D. Kraus, “On Least Squares Methods for Direction of Arrival Estimation in the Presence of Unknown Noise Fields,” Proceedings of ICASSP’88, New York, 1988, pp. 2833-2836.

[30] P. Stoica and A. Nehorai, “Performance Study of Conditional and Unconditional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 38, 1990, pp. 1783-1795.