ABSTRACT BOD measurements in presence of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, silver and cadmium are reported using wastewater from dairy industry as a seed. Extent of inhibition in BOD is studied for variables like, concen-tration of metal ions (0.2 mM to 1.4 mM), pH (3 to 8) and temperature of incubation (15℃, 20℃, 25℃, 30℃ and 35℃). Results of BOD inhibition are supported by absorbance measurement (OD600) studies of microbial matter preserved in Luriya broth medium. OD measurement results are used to derive minimum inhibitory concentration, i.e., threshold concentration of each metal showing toxicity towards microbes. Sil-ver is found to be the most toxic element.
Cite this paper
nullS. Mittal and S. Goel, "BOD Exertion and OD600 Measurements in Presence of Heavy Metal Ions Using Microbes from Dairy Wastewater as a Seed," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 478-488. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25055.
 A. Hufschmid, K. Becker-Van Slooten, A. Strawczynski, P. Vioget, S. Parra, P. Péringer and C. Pulgarin, “BOD5 Measurements of Water Presenting Inhibitory Cu2+ Im-plications in Using of BOD to Evaluate Biodegradability of Industrial Wastewater,” Chemosphere, Vol. 50, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 171-176.
A. K. Shrivastava, J. Swaroop and N. Jain, “Effect of Seed on BOD Exertion,” Indian Journal of Environ-mental Health, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2000, pp. 75-78.
S. K. Mittal and R. K. Ratra, “Toxic Effect of Heavy Metal Ions on BOD,” Water Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2000, pp. 147-152.
K. Reidal, K. P. Lange, H. J. Stein, M. Kühn, P. Ott and F. Scheller, “A Microbial Sensor for BOD,” Water Research, Vol. 24, No. 7, July 1990, pp. 883-887.
Y. R. Li and J. Chu, “Study of BOD Microbial Sensors for Wastewater Treatment Control,” Applied Biochemis-try and Biotechnology, Vol. 28-29, No. 1, March 1991, pp. 855-864.
F. Li and T. C. Tan, “Effect of Heavy Metal Ions on the Efficacy of a Mixed Bacilli BOD Sensor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, 1994, pp. 315-324.
F. Li and T. C. Tan, “Monitoring BOD in the Presence of Heavy Metal Ions Using a Poly(4-vinylpyridiene)-Coated Microbial Sensor,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 9, No. 6, 1994, pp. 445-455.
M. Ajmala, A. Ahmada and A. A. Nomania, “Microbial Uptake of Cadmium and its Effects on the Biochemical Oxygen Demand at Various Temperatures,” Water Re-search, Vol. 16, No. 12, 1982, pp. 1611-1614.
K. Pilegaard, “Heavy Metals in Bulk Precipitation and Transplanted Hypogymnia Physodes and Dicranoweisia Cirrata in the Vicinity of a Danish Steelworks,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 11, No. 1, January 1979, pp. 67-71.
H. G. Baity, “Some Factors Affecting the Aerobic De-composition of Sewage Sludge Deposits,” Sewage Works Journal, Vol. 10, 1938, pp. 539-568.
I. Feldman, “Use and Abuse of pH Measurements,” Ana-lytical Chemistry, Vol. 28, No. 12, 1956, pp. 1859-1866.
M. Ajmal, A. Ahmad and A. A. Nomani, “Microbial Uptake of Cadmium and its Effects on the Biochemical Oxygen Demand at Various Temperatures,” Water Re-search, Vol. 16, No. 12, 1982, pp. 1611-1614.
D. H. Nies, “Microbial Heavy Metal Resistance,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 51, No. 6, June 1999, pp. 730-750.
K. Nicolette, H. W. Anton and M. Williem, “Detection and Characterization of Lactose-Utilizing Lactococcus spp. in Natural Ecosystems,” Applied and Environmental Mi-crobiology, Vol. 61, No. 2, February 1995, pp. 788-792.
V. M. Marshall, “Inoculated Ecosystems in a Milk Envi-ronment,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 73, 1991, pp. 127-135.
M. S. Salama, W. E. Sandine and S. J. Giovannoni, “Iso-lation of Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Cremoris from Na-ture by Colony Hybridization with rRNA Probes,” Ap-plied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 59, No. 11, November 1993, pp. 3941-3945.
E. Bore and S. Langsrud, “Characterization of Microor-ganisms Isolated from Dairy Industry after Cleaning and Fogging with Alkyl Amine and Peracetic Acid,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 98, 2005, pp. 96-105.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and World Press Freedom Committee, “Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Waste-water,” 20th Edition, In: Eaton, A. D. Clesceri, S. Lenore and A. E. Greenberg, Ed., 2000.
T. D. Brock, M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko and J. Parker, “Biology of Microorganisms,” 7th Edition, Pren-tice-Hall, Inc., Englewood, 1994.
K. Riedel, R. Renneberg, M. Kühn and F. Scheller, “A Fast Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using Microbial Sensors,” Applied Microbiology and Biotech-nology, Vol. 28, No. 3, May 1988, pp. 316-318.
J. E. Coleman, “Zinc Enzymes,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 222-234.
H. A. Ragan and T. J. Mast, “Cadmium Inhalation and Male Reproductive Toxicity,” Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 114, 1990, pp. 1-22.
B. E. Burke and R. M. Pfister, “Cadmium Transport by a Cd2+ Sensitive and a Cd2+ Resistant Strain of Bacillus Subtilis,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 32, 1986, pp. 537-542.
R. A. Laddaga, R. Bessen and S. Silver, “Cadmium- resistant Mutant of Bacillus Subtilis 168 with Reduced Cadmium Transport,” Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 162, 1985, pp. 1106-1110.
Tynecka, Z., and A. Malm. “Energetic Basis of Cadmium Toxicity in Staphylococcus Aureus,” BioMetals, Vol. 8, No. 3, July 1995, pp. 197-204.
S. Clemens, D. M. Antoseiwicz, J. M. Ward, D. P. Schachtman and J. I. Schroeder, “The Plant cDNA LCT1 Mediates the Uptake of Calcium and Cadmium in Yeast,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 95, September 1998, pp. 12043-12048.
R. W. Olafson, K. Abel and R. G. Sim, “Prokaryotic Metallothionein: Preliminary Characterization of a Blue- Green Algae Heavy Metal Binding Protein,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 89, No. 1, July 1979, pp. 36-43.
P. O. Nelson, A. K. Chung and M. C. Hudson, “Factors Affecting the Fate of Heavy Metals in the Activated Sludge Process,” Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 53, No. 8, 1981, pp. 1323-1333.