JWARP  Vol.2 No.5 , May 2010
Support of Space Techniques for Groundwater Exploration in Lebanon
Author(s) Amin Shaban
ABSTRACT
Lebanon is known by the availability in water resources whether on surface or among the existing rock for-mations. However, the status-quo does not reflect this availability due to a number of physical factors, as well as the mismanagement of these resources. Hence, the per capita has been reduced by about 50% in the last three decades. There are sixteen exposed rock formations in Lebanon, two of them are major aquifers and they are characterized by highly fractured and karstified carbonate rocks. Recently, challenges for groundwater in Lebanon have been developed. These are the: overexploitation, climate change and the acute geologic setting, which led to decline in rainfall rate, and thus exacerbated water demand. The existing chal-lenges resulted with a number of problems in ground water resources management, namely: quality deterio-ration, impact on springs and groundwater behavior, loss of groundwater o the sea, saltwater intrusion and exacerbated by the lack of data and mismanagement in water sector. In this respect, new technologies can be utilized as a helpful instrument in managing groundwater resources to treat the unfavorable situation. Space techniques and GIS have been recently raised in several topics on water resources management, including, mainly exploration and monitoring. They proved to be capable to extract hydrogeologic information and thus to manipulate this information in creditable approaches of analysis. This study introduced the present status on the Lebanese groundwater resources and the existing challenges and problems. Thus, it extends an appli-cation from Lebanon on the used new approaches for exploring groundwater.

Cite this paper
nullA. Shaban, "Support of Space Techniques for Groundwater Exploration in Lebanon," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 469-477. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25054.
References
[1]   M. Khawlie, A. Shaban and T. Darwich, 2003. “Seawater Intrusion in Beirut and the Possibility of Impact Reduc-tion,” Conference on Groundwater Management in Greater Beirut, Beirut, 19 December 2003.

[2]   M. Fawaz, “Towards a water policy in Lebanon,” ESIB Press, Beirut, 2007, p. 1-259.

[3]   Z. Beydoun, “Petroleum prospects of Lebanon: Reevalu-ation,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 61, 1977, pp. 43-64.

[4]   Etude des Eaux Souterraines, “Programme des Nations Unies Pour le Développement,” Liban, 1970.

[5]   A. Shaban, “Etude de l’hydrogéologie au Liban Occi- dental: Utilisation de la télédétection,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Bordeaux Université, Bordeaux, 2003, p. 1-202.

[6]   A. Shaban, “Indicators and Aspects of Hydrological Drought in Lebanon,” Water Resources Management, Vol. 23, No. 10, August 2009, pp. 1875-1891.

[7]   A. Shaban, M. Khawlie and C. Abdallah, “Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Determine Recharge Potential Zones: The Case of Occidental Lebanon,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, April 2006, pp. 433-443.

[8]   J. Chorowicz, J Beard, R. Guillander, R. Morasse, D. Prudon, J. Rudant, “Automatic dip and Strike Measure-ments on Digitized Three-Dimensional Geological Map,” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1991, pp. 431-436.

[9]   A. Shaban, F. El-Baz and M. Khawlie, “The Relation between Water-Wells Productivity and Lineaments Mor-phometry: Selected Zones from Lebanon,” Nordic Hy-drology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2007, pp. 178-201.

 
 
Top