OJPed  Vol.2 No.1 , March 2012
Pregnancy risk markers in Tourette syndrome: A systematic review
Abstract: The published literature on the prevalence of pregnancy risk markers in patients with Tourette Syndrome (TS) was reviewed. PubMed was searched for papers describing studies of pregnancy risk markers in TS. All years and languages were searched, and the reference sections of each paper were also reviewed for additional citations. We identified 20 studies reporting on pregnancy risk markers in 1588 subjects with TS. Six studies used comparison populations and two utilized twins for comparisons. Three risk markers (decreased birth weight, father’s age, and number of prior terminations of pregnancy) were identified as possible risk markers for TS. To date, no pregnancy risk marker has been demonstrated to increase risk for development of TS, to increase syndromal severity, rates of comorbidity, or to increase duration of TS.
Cite this paper: Burd, L. , Miles, J. , Peng, C. , Kerbeshian, J. and Williams, A. (2012) Pregnancy risk markers in Tourette syndrome: A systematic review. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 2, 18-26. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21002.

[1]   Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Barth, A., Klug, M.G., Avery, P.K. and Benz, B. (2001) Long-term follow-up of an epidemiologically defined cohort of patients with Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 16, 431-437.

[2]   Kerbeshian, J. and Burd, L. (2005) Moving target: The developing social brain and psychopathology. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 839-852.

[3]   Freeman, R.D., Fast, D.K., Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Robertson, M.M. and Sandor P. (2000) An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: Selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 42, 436-447. doi:10.1017/S0012162200000839

[4]   Carter, A.S., Pauls, D.L., Leckman, J.F. and Cohen, D.J. (1994) A prospective longitudinal study of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 377-385. doi:10.1097/00004583-199403000-00012

[5]   Motlagh, M.G., Katsovich, L., Thompson, N., Lin, H., Young-Shin, K., Scahill, L., et al. (2010) Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: An examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 755-764. doi:10.1007/s00787-010-0115-7

[6]   Klug, M.G., Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Benz, B. and Martsolf, J.T. (2003) A comparison of the effects of parental risk markers on pre- and perinatal variables in multiple patient cohorts with fetal alcohol syndrome, autism, Tourette Syndrome, and sudden infant death syndrome: An enviromic analysis. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25, 707-717. doi:10.1016/

[7]   Mathews, C.A., Bimson, B., Lowe, T.L., Herrera, L.D., Budman, C.L., Erenberg, G. et al. (2006) Association between maternal smoking and increased symptom severity in Tourette’s syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1066-1073. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.6.1066

[8]   Shapiro, A.K. (1988) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. 2nd Edition, Raven Press, New York.

[9]   Corbett, J.A., Mathews, A.M., Connell, P.H. and Shapiro, D.A. (1969) Tics and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: A follow-up study and critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 1229-1241. doi:10.1192/bjp.115.528.1229

[10]   Pringsheim, T., Sandor, P., Lang, A., Shah, P. and O’Connor, P. (2009) Prenatal and perinatal morbidity in children with Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 115-121. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31819e6a33

[11]   Santangelo, S.L., Pauls, D.L., Goldstein, J.M., Faraone, S.V., Tsuang, M.T. and Leckman, J.F. (1994) Tourette’s syndrome: What are the influences of gender and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 795-804. doi:10.1097/00004583-199407000-00004

[12]   Min, S.K. (1983) Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome—Report on 24 Korean cases. Yonsei Medical Journal, 24, 76-82.

[13]   Lees, A.J., Robertson, M., Trimble, M.R. and Murray, N.M. (1984) A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in the United Kingdom. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 47, 1-8. doi:10.1136/jnnp.47.1.1

[14]   Eisenberg, L., Ascher, E. and Kanner, L. (1959) A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette’s disease (maladie des tics) in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 715-723.

[15]   Field, J.R., Corbon, K.B., Goldstein, N.P. and Klass, D.W. (1966) Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Neurology, 16, 453-462.

[16]   Lucas, A.R., Beard, C.M., Rajput, A.H. and Kurland, L.T. (1982) Tourette syndrome in Rochester, Minnesota, 1968-1979. Advances in Neurology, 35, 267-269.

[17]   Mak, F.L., Chung, S.Y., Lee, P. and Chen, S. (1982) Tourette syndrome in the Chinese: A follow-up of 15 cases. Advances in Neurology, 35, 281-283.

[18]   Hyde, T.M., Aaronson, B.A., Randolph, C., Rickler K.C. and Weinberger, D.R. (1992) Relationship of birth weight to the phenotypic expression of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome in monozygotic twins. Neurology, 42, 652-658.

[19]   Leckman, J.F., Price, R.A., Walkup, J.T., Ort, S., Pauls, D.L. and Cohen, D.J. (1987) Nongenetic factors in Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 100. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130112025

[20]   Saccomani, L., Fabiana, V., Manuela, B. and Giambattista, R. (2005) Tourette syndrome and chronic tics in a sample of children and adolescents. Brain & Development, 27, 349-352. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2004.09.007

[21]   Kondo, K. and Nomura, Y. (1982) Tourette syndrome in Japan: Etiologic considerations based on associated factors and familial clustering. Advances in Neurology, 35, 271-276.

[22]   Pasamanick, B. and Kawi, A. (1956) A study of the association of prenatal and paranatal factors with the development of tics in children; a preliminary investigation. Journal of Pediatrics, 48, 596-601. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(56)80095-4

[23]   Burd, L., Severud, R., Klug, M.G. and Kerbeshian, J. (1999) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for Tourette disorder. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 27, 295-302. doi:10.1515/JPM.1999.042

[24]   American Academy of Neurology (2010) Classification scheme requirements for therapeutic questions.

[25]   Baron-Cohen, S., Scahill, V.L., Izaguirre, J., Hornsey, H. and Robertson, M.M. (1999) The prevalence of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents with autism: A large scale study. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1151-1159. doi:10.1017/S003329179900896X

[26]   Kerbeshian, J. and Burd L. (1992) Epidemiology and comorbidity. The North Dakota prevalence studies of Tourette syndrome and other developmental disorders. Advances in Neurology, 58, 67-74.

[27]   Walkup, J.T., Scahill, L.D. and Riddle, M.A. (1995) Disruptive behavior, hyperactivity, and learning disabilities in children with Tourette’s syndrome. Advances in Neurology, 65, 259-272.

[28]   Tian, Y., Liao, I.H., Zhan, X., Gunther, J.R., Ander, B.P., Liu, D., et al. (2010) Exon expression and alternatively spliced genes in Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, 156, 72-78. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31140

[29]   State, M.W. (2010) The genetics of child and psychiatric disorders: Focus on autism and Tourette syndrome. Neuron, 68, 254-269. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.004

[30]   Leckman, J.F., Dolnansky, E.S., Hardin, M.T., Clubb M., Walkup, J.T., Stevenson, J., et al. (1990) Perinatal factors in the expresison of Tourette’s syndrome: An exploratory study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 220-226. doi:10.1097/00004583-199003000-00010