AJPS  Vol.3 No.2 , February 2012
Enzymes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism Involved in Strengthening the Structural Barrier for Providing Genotype and Stage Dependent Resistance to Karnal Bunt in Wheat
Abstract: The role of lignifications and enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid (PP) biosynthesis i.e. phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in providing resistance to Karnal Bunt (KB) during different developmental stages of resistant (HD-29) and susceptible genotype (WH-542) and its recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat were investigated. The enzymes of PP pathway were expressed constitutively in both the susceptible and resistant genotype. However, the activity was higher in all the developmental stages of resistant genotype and its RILs, indicating that this genotype has a significant higher basal level of these enzymes as compared to the susceptible line and could be used as marker(s) to define KB resistance. The activity of PAL and POD was significantly higher in WSv stage (Z = 16) while the specific activity of PPO was higher in WS3 (Z = 77) stage as compared to the other physiological stages in both the genotypes. In resistant genotype the lignin content increased two-fold and three-fold at WS2 and WS3 stage, respectively, while in susceptible genotype no significant increase in lignin content was observed. The pathway might be associated with the enhancement of structural defense barrier due to lignifications of cell wall as evident from the enhanced synthesis of lignin in all the stages of resistant genotype. Our results clearly indicate the possible role of enzymes of PP metabolism provides genotype and stage dependant structural barrier resistance in wheat against KB.
Cite this paper: S. Purwar, S. Gupta and A. Kumar, "Enzymes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism Involved in Strengthening the Structural Barrier for Providing Genotype and Stage Dependent Resistance to Karnal Bunt in Wheat," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 261-267. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32031.

[1]   G. Fuentes-Davila and S. Rajaram, “Sources of Resistance to Tilletia indica in Wheat,” Crop Protection, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1994, pp. 20-24. doi:10.1016/0261-2194(94)90131-7

[2]   H. S. Dhaliwal, A. S. Randhawa, K. Chand and D. V. Singh, “Primary Infection and Further Development of Karnal Bunt of Wheat,” Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp. 239-244.

[3]   M. Rana, C. Arora, B. Ram and A. Kumar, “Floret Specificity of Karnal Bunt Infection Due to Presence of Fungal Growth Promotory Activity in Wheat Spikes,” Journal of Plant Biology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2001, pp. 283-290.

[4]   R. A. Dixon, L. Achnine, P. Kota, C. J. Liu, M. S. S. Reddy and L. Wang, “The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Plant Defence: A Genomics Perspective,” Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2002, pp. 371-390. doi:10.1046/j.1364-3703.2002.00131.x

[5]   L. G. Korkina, “Phenylpropanoids as Naturally Occurring Antioxidants: From Plant Defense to Human Health,” Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol. 53, 2007, pp. 15-25.

[6]   T. Vogt, “Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis,” Molecular Plant, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 2-20. doi:10.1093/mp/ssp106

[7]   P. Bednarek, B. Schneider, A. Svatos, N. J. Oldham and K. Hahlbrock, “Structural Complexity, Differential Response to Infection, and Tissue Specificity of Indolic and Phenylpropanoid Secondary Mechanism in Arabidopsis roots,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 138, 2005, pp. 1058-1070. doi:10.1104/pp.104.057794

[8]   N. P. Shetty, J. D. Jensen, A. Knudsen, C. Finnie, N. Geshi, A. Blennow, D. B. Collinge and H. J. L. J?rgensen, “Effects of β-1,3-Glucan from Septoria tritici on Structural Defence Responses in Wheat,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 60, No. 15, 2009, pp. 4287-4300. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp269

[9]   I. E. Somssich and K. Hahlbrock, “Pathogen Defence in Plants—A Paradigm of Biological Complexity,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 3, 1998, pp. 86-90. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01199-6

[10]   M. Mohammadi and H. Kazemi, “Changes in Peroxidase and Polyphenol Activity in Susceptible and Resistant Wheat Heads Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and Induced Resistance,” Plant Science, Vol. 162, 2002, pp. 491-498. doi:10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00538-6

[11]   K. M. Herrmann, “The Shikimate Pathway: Early Steps in the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Compounds,” Plant Cell, Vol. 7, 1995, pp. 907-919.

[12]   B. Munch-Mani and A. J. Slusarenko, “Production of Salicylic Acid Precursors Is a Major Function of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase in Resistance of Arabidopsis to Peronospora parasitica,” Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 1996, pp. 203-212.

[13]   R. Gomez-Vasquez, R. Day, H. Buschmann, S. Randles, J. R. Beeching and R. M. Cooper, “Phenylpropanoids, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase and Peroxidases in Elicitor Challenged Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Suspension Cells and Leaves,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 94, 2004, pp. 87-97. doi:10.1093/aob/mch107

[14]   K. Kerby and S. Somerville, “Enhancement of Specific Intercellular Peroxidases Following Inoculation of Barley with Erysiphe graminis sp. Hordei,” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 35, 1989, pp. 323-337. doi:10.1016/0885-5765(89)90037-4

[15]   K. G. Welinder, “Plant Peroxidases: Structure, Function Relationships,” In: C. Penel, T. Gaspar and H. Greppin, Eds., Plant Peroxidases 1980-1990, Topics and Detailed Literature on Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects, Université de Genève, Geneva, 1992, pp. 1-24.

[16]   L. Li and J. C. Steffens, “Over-Expression of Polyphenol Oxidase in Transgenic Tomato Plants Results in Enhanced Bacterial Disease Resistance,” Planta, Vol. 215, No. 2, 2002, pp. 239-247. doi:10.1007/s00425-002-0750-4

[17]   V. C. Gupta, J. P. Jaiswal, I. Sharma and A. Kumar, “Investigating the Role of Cystatinin Conferring Stage Dependent Resistance against Karnal Bunt of Wheat,” Food and Agricultural Immunology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2010, pp. 65-79. doi:10.1080/09540100903427314

[18]   D. P. Dickerson, S. F. Pascholati, A. E. Hagerman, L. G. Butler and R. L. Nicholson, “Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Hydroxycinnamate: CoA Ligase in Maize Mesocotyls Inoculated with Helminthosporium maydis or Helminthosporium carbonum,” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 25, 1984, pp. 111-123. doi:10.1016/0048-4059(84)90050-X

[19]   N. Zieslin and R. Ben-Zaken, “Peroxidase Activity and Presence of Phenolic Substances in Penduncles of Rose Flowers,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 31, 1993, pp. 333-339.

[20]   C. H. Shi, Y. Dai, X. Bingle, X. L. Xu, Y. S. Xie and Q. L. Liu, “The Purification and Spectral Properties of Polyphenol Oxidase I from Nicotiana tabacum,” Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, Vol. 19, 2001, pp. 381-385. doi:10.1007/BF02772840

[21]   Barbar and Rider, “A Quantitative Assay of Induced Lignification in Wounded Leaves and Its Use to Survey Potential Elicitors of the Response,” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1988, pp. 85-197.

[22]   M. Bradford, “A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 7, No. 72, 1976, pp. 248-254. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

[23]   B. G. Flavia and C. M. Jair, “Custodio DS and Goussaini MM (2005) Resistance Induction in Wheat Plants by Silicon and Aphid,” Scientia Agricola, Vol. 62, No. 6, 2005, pp. 547-551.

[24]   C. Chen, R. R. Belanger, N. Benhamou and T. C. Pullitz, “Defense Enzymes Induced in Cucumber Roots by Treatment with Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR),” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 56, 2000, pp. 13-23. doi:10.1006/pmpp.1999.0243

[25]   T. Fukasawa-Akada, S. D. Kung and J. C. Watson, “Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene Structure, Expression and Evolution in Nicotiana,” Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 30, 1996, pp. 711-722. doi:10.1007/BF00019006

[26]   G. Idoia, A. Jone and G. Nieves, “Defence-Related Enzymes in Pepper Roots during Interactions with Arbuscu-lar mycorrhizal Fungi and/or Verticillium dahliae,” Biological Control, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2006, pp. 293-310.

[27]   Borden and Higgins, “Hydrogen Peroxidase Play a Critical Role in the Defense Response of Tomato to Clodosporicem Fulvum,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 61, 2002, pp. 227-236.

[28]   M. Iriti and F. Faoro, “Plant Defense and Human Nutrition: The Phenylpropanoids on the Menu,” Curr. Top. Nutrac. Res., Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 47-95.