AJPS  Vol.3 No.2 , February 2012
Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region—Diversity and Implication
Abstract: The present study deals with comprehensive list of Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region with background information on family, habit and nativity. A total of 190 invasive alien species under 112 genera, belonging to 47 families have been recorded. Among these, the dicotyledons represent by 40 families, 95 genera and 170 species; monocotyledons represent by 7 families, 17 genera and 20 species. The analysis of invasive species reveals that 18 species have been introduced intentionally, while the remaining species established unintentionally through trade. In terms of nativity, amongst 13 geographic regions, the majority of invasive plants reported from American continent (73%). While in life form analysis, the herbs (148 species) are dominant, followed by shrubs (19 species), Grass (11 species), Trees (4 species), sedges and climber (3 species each). Most of the invasive species are annual habit (63%). Apart from these, 90 species (47%) are being used by locals for medicinal purposes. A better planning is needed for early detection to control and reporting of infestations of spread of new and naturalized weeds to be monitored.
Cite this paper: K. Sekar, "Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region—Diversity and Implication," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 177-184. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32021.

[1]   Anonymous, Indian Himalayan Region, ENVIS Centre on Himalayan Ecology, G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Almora, 2011.

[2]   S. S. Samant, U. Dhar and L. M. S. Palni, “Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalaya: Diversity, Distribution and Potential Value,” G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Almora, 1998.

[3]   A. S. Raghubanshi, L. C. Rai, J. P. Gaur and J. S. Singh, “Invasive Alien Species and Biodiversity in India,” Current Science, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2005, pp. 539-540.

[4]   Y. H. Sujay, H. N. Sattagi and R. K. Patil, “Invasive Alien Insects and Their Impact on Agroecosystem,” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2010, pp. 26-34.

[5]   H. M. Pant and N. Sharma, “Inventory of Some Exotic Cultivated Tree Species of Doon Valley and Their Ethnobotanical Uses,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 4, No. 20, 2010, pp. 2144-2147.

[6]   M. A. McGeoch, S. H. M. Butchart, D. Spear, E. Marais, E. J. Kleynhans, A. Symes, J. Chanson and M. Hoffmann, “Global Indicators of Biological Invasion: Species Numbers, Biodiversity Impact and Policy Responses,” Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2010, pp. 95-108. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00633.x

[7]   M. E. Eiswerth, T. D. Darden, W. S. Johnson, J. Agapoff and R. H. Thomas, “Input-Output Modeling, Outdoor Recreation, and the Economic Impacts of Weeds,” Weed Science, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2005, pp. 130-137. doi:10.1614/WS-04-022R

[8]   H. Hara, Ed., “Flora of Eastern Himalaya, Second Report,” University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1971.

[9]   C. R. Babu, “Herbaceous Flora of Dehradun,” Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 1977.

[10]   H. J. Chowdhery and B. M. Wadhwa, “Flora of Himachal Pradesh—Analysis,” Vol. 1-3, Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, 1984.

[11]   R. K. Gupta, “The Living Himalaya,” Vol. I, Today and Tomorrow Publication, New Delhi, 1983.

[12]   R. K. Gupta, “The Living Himalaya,” Vol. II, Today and Tomorrow Publication, New Delhi, 1989.

[13]   H. J. Chowdhery, G. S. Giri, G. D. Pal, A. Pramanik and S. K. Das, “Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh,” Vol. I, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. 1996, pp. 1- 693.

[14]   H. J. Chowdhery, G. S.Giri, G. D. Pal, A. Pramanik and S. K. Das, “Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh,” Vol. II, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 2008, pp. 1-670.

[15]   R. C. Srivastava, “Flora of Sikkim (Ranunculaceae-Morin-gaceae),” Oriental Enterprises, Delhi, 1998.

[16]   R. D. Gaur, “Flora of the District Garhwal, North West Himalaya (with Ethnobotanical Notes),” TransMedia, Srinagar, Garhwal, 1999.

[17]   S. Kumar and V. Singh, “Asteraceae of Sikkim,” Deep Publications, New Delhi, 2001.

[18]   N. P. Singh, D. K. Singh and B. P. Uniyal, Eds., “Flora of Jammu & Kashmir,” Vol. I, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 2002.

[19]   P. K. Hajra and A. De, “The Indigenous and Exotic Beauties of Dehradun,” Oriental Enterprises, Dehradun, 2007.

[20]   J. D. Hooker, “Flora of British India,” Vol. I-VII, Reeve & Co. Ltd., London, 1872-1897.

[21]   B. P. Uniyal, J. R. Sharma, U. Choudhery and D. K. Singh, “Flowering Plants of Uttarakhand,” Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, 2007.

[22]   J. K. Maheshwari, “Studies on the Naturalized Flora of India,” Proceedings of the Summer School of Botany, New Delhi, 2-15 June 1960, pp. 156-170.

[23]   K. M. Matthew, “Alien flora of Kodai Kanal and Palni Hills,” Records of Botanical Survey of India, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1969, pp. 1-241.

[24]   J. K. Maheswari and S. R. Paul, “The Alien Flora of Ranchi,” Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1975, pp. 158-188.

[25]   M. P. Nayar, “Changing Patterns of the Indian Flora,” Bulletin of Botanical Survey of India, Vol. 19, No. 1-4, 1977, pp. 145-155.

[26]   P. K. Hajra and B. K. Das, “Vegetation of Gangtok with Special Reference to Alien Plants,” India Forums, Vol. 107, 1982, pp. 554-566.

[27]   B. D. Sharma, “Exotic Flora of Allahabad,” Botanical Survey of India, Dehra Dun, 1984.

[28]   K. G. Saxena, “Biological Invasion in the Indian Sub-Continent: Review of Invasion by Plants,” In: P. S. Ramakrishnan, Ed., Ecology of Biological Invasion in the Tropics, International Scientific Publications, New Delhi, 1991, pp. 53-73.

[29]   R. P. Pandey and P. J. Parmar, “The Exotic Flora of Rajasthan,” Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1994, pp. 105-121.

[30]   H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, “Invasive Species in a Changing World,” Island Press, Washington, 2000.

[31]   D. S. Pandey, “Exotics-Introduced and Natural Immigrants, Weeds, Cultivated, etc.,” In: N. P. Singh, D. K. Singh, P. K. Hajra and B. D. Sharma, Eds., Flora of India: Introductory Volume, Part II, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 2000, pp. 266-301.

[32]   J. A. McNeely, H. A. Mooney, L. E. Neville, P. Schei and J. K. Waage, “A Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species,” IUCN Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, in Collaboration with the Global Invasive Species Programme, 2001..

[33]   P. S. Negi and P. K. Hajra, “Alien Flora of Doon Valley, North West Himalaya,” Current Science, Vol. 92, No. 7, 2007, pp. 968-978.

[34]   C. S. Reddy, “Catalogue of Invasive Alien Flora of India,” Life Science Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2008, pp. 84-89.

[35]   K. P. Singh, A. N. Shukla and J. S. Singh, “State-Level Inventory of Invasive Alien Plants, Their Source Regions and Use Potential,” Current Science, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2010, pp. 107-114.

[36]   A. A. Khuroo, I. Rashid, Z. Reshi, G. H. Dar and B. A. Wafai, “The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya,” Biological Invasions, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007, pp. 269-292. doi:10.1007/s10530-006-9032-6

[37]   R. R. Rao and R. Murugan, “Impact of Exotic Adventives Weeds on Native Biodiversity in India: Implications for Conservation,” In: L. C. Rai and J. P. Gaur, Eds., Invasive Alien Species and Biodiversity in India, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 2006, pp. 93-109.