CN  Vol.4 No.1 , February 2012
Utilizing Colored Pheromones and Helping Ants for Wireless Mesh Networks Routing
Abstract: Improving routing algorithm performance not only leads to appreciate the quality of data transmission, but also increases the speed of data transfer. In this paper we propose a hybrid method which is a combination of traffic classification by the help of colored pheromones and helping ants method in the intermediate nodes. This combination increases the convergence speed and decreases the delay and Jitter in the network. Also we compare the obtained results with two known routing algorithms that are based on the ant colony.
Cite this paper: E. Ghasemkhani, R. Alizadeh and A. Kousari, "Utilizing Colored Pheromones and Helping Ants for Wireless Mesh Networks Routing," Communications and Network, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2012, pp. 8-17. doi: 10.4236/cn.2012.41002.

[1]   I. F. Akyildiz and I. H. Kasimoglu, “Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks: Research Challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2004, pp. 351-367. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2004.04.003

[2]   I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” Computer Networks, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2002, pp. 393-422. doi:10.1016/S1389-1286(01)00302-4

[3]   I. F. Akyildiz, X. Wang and W. Wang, “Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey,” Broadband and Wireless Networking (BWN) Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 2005, pp. 445-487.

[4]   S. M. Alamouti, “A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1451-1458.

[5]   M. Alicherry, R. Bhatia and L. Li, “Joint Channel Assignment and Routing for Throughput Optimization in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, ACM, New York, 28 August-2 September 2005, pp. 58-72.

[6]   R. Draves, J. Padhye and B. Zill, “Routing in Multi-Radio, Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks,” ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 26 September-1 October 2004, pp. 114-128.

[7]   R. Bhatia and M. Kodialam, “On Power Efficient Communication over Multi-Hop Wireless Networks: Joint Routing, Scheduling, and Power Control,” IEEE Annual Conference on Computer Communications, Hong Kong, 7-11 March 2004, pp. 1457-1466.

[8]   C. Blum, “Ant Colony Optimization: Introduction and Recent Trends,” Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 353-373.

[9]   G. Held, “Wireless Mesh Networks,” Taylor & Francis Ltd., London, 2008.

[10]   O. Hussein, T. Saadawi and M. Lee, “Probability Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Journalon Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2005, pp. 2248-2259. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2005.857205

[11]   T. H. Labella and F. Dressler, “A Bio-Inspired Architecture for Division of Labour in SANETs,” Proceedings of 1st IEEE/ACM International Conference on Bio-Inspired Models of Network, Information and Computing Systems, Cavalese, 2006.

[12]   B. Ko, V. Misra, J. Padhye and D. Rubenstein, “Distributed Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio 802.11 Mesh Networks,” WCNC 2007: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Hong Kong, 11-15 March 2007, pp. 3978-3983. doi:10.1109/WCNC.2007.727

[13]   M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, “Characterizing the Capacity Region in Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, ACM, New York, 11-15 March 2005, pp. 73-87.

[14]   A. M. Rad and V. Wong, “Joint Optimal Channel Assignment and Congestion Control for Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Vol. 5, 2006, pp. 1984-1989.

[15]   K. Ramachandran, E. Belding, K. Almeroth and M. Buddhikot, “Interference-Aware Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, 23-29 April 2006, pp. 1-12. doi:10.1109/INFOCOM.2006.177

[16]   A. Raniwala, K. Gopalan and T. Chiueh, “Centralized Channel Assignment and Routing Algorithms for Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks,” SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2004, pp. 50-65. doi:10.1145/997122.997130

[17]   J. Tang, G. Xue and W. Zhang, “Interference-Aware Topology Control and Qos Routing in Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Symposium on Mobile adhoc Networking and Computing, ACM, New York, 2005, pp. 68-77.

[18]   Y. Zhang, J. Zheng and H. Hu, “Security in Wireless Mesh Networks,” Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications, Taylor & Francis, London, 2008, p. 552.

[19]   H. Wu, F. Yang, K. Tan, J. Chen, Q. Zhang and Z. Zhang, “Distributed Channel Assignment and Routing in Multiradio Multichannel Multihop Wireless Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 24, No. 11, 2006, pp. 1972-1983. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2006.881638

[20]   R. Schoonderwoerd, O. Holland and J. Bruten, “Ant-Like Agent for Load Balancing in Telecommunications Network,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 5-8 February 1997, pp. 209-216. doi:10.1145/267658.267718

[21]   G. D. Caro and M. Dorigo, “AntNet: Distributed Stigmergetic Control for Communication Networks,” Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998, pp. 317-365.

[22]   G. D. Caro and M. Dorigo, “Mobile Agent for Adaptive Routing,” Proceedings of 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Science, Kona, 5-8 January 1998.

[23]   D. Camara and A. A. F. Loureiro, “A Novel Routing Algorithm for Hoc Networks,” Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, Vol. 18, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 85-100.

[24]   A. Soltani, M. R. Akbarzadeh and M. Naghibzadeh, “Helping Ants for Adaptive Network Routing,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 343, No. 4-5, 2006, pp. 389-403.

[25]   C. Bertelle, A. Dutot, F. Guinand and D. Olivier, “Distribution of Agent based Simulation with Colored Ant Algorithm,” Proceedings of 14th European Simulation Symposium, Dresden, 2002.

[26]   K. M. Sim and W. H. Sun, “Ant Colony Optimization for Routing and Load-Balancing: Survey and New Directions,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2003, pp. 325-336.

[27]   M. Umlauft and W. Elmenreich, “QoS-aware Ant Routing with Colored Pheromones in Wireless Mesh Networks,” 4th International IEEE Conference “Intelligent Systems”, Vol. 3, 2008, pp. 1060-1064.

[28]   M. Dorigo and C. Blum, “Ant Colony Optimization Theory: A Survey,” Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 243-278.

[29]   M. Dorigo, M. Birattari and T. Stutzle, “Ant Colony Optimization,” IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006, pp. 28-39.

[30]   M. Gunes, U. Sorges and I. Bouazizi, “ARA—The Ant-Colony Based Routing Algorithm for MANETs,” Parallel Processing Workshops, Vancouver, 20-23 August 2002, pp. 79-85.

[31]   D. Pan and B. Xing, “An Ant Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Network,” Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Chongqing, 25-27 June 2008, pp. 4595-4599.

[32]   D. Pan, Y. Xue and L. Zhan, “A Multicast Wireless Mesh Network Routing Algorithm With Ant Colony Optimization,” Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Pattern Recognition, Hong Kong, 30-31 August 2008, pp. 744-748.