TI  Vol.3 No.1 , February 2012
Knowledge Transfer Processes in Product Development—Theoretical Analysis in Small Technology Parks
Abstract: Large science parks and their knowledge transfer processes have been studied extensively while only a few papers on small parks exist. Characteristic to them is that the institutions and services are fewer than in the large ones. The main target of this paper is to create a framework to analyse further knowledge transfer processes in small technology parks. The framework resulting from the study has two main phases: the innovation enabler and product development process analyses. The innovation enabler analysis starts with a local innovation system and a technology park analysis, including links to other geographical levels, and links to sectoral innovation systems. It is continued with a social capital assessment and a network analysis. The product development process analysis explores the product development processes as the targets of the knowledge transfer, and transfer of different types of knowledge through and from the local innovation system.
Cite this paper: S. Saari and H. Haapasalo, "Knowledge Transfer Processes in Product Development—Theoretical Analysis in Small Technology Parks," Technology and Investment, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 36-47. doi: 10.4236/ti.2012.31006.

[1]   C. O’Brian, “Downturn in Valley Jobs Seems to Be Over, Modest Gains Leave Economists Mildly Optimistic,” The Mercury News, 2007.

[2]   Y. Zhang, “The Science Park Phenomenon: Development, Evolution and Typology,” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 138-154.

[3]   IASP, “International Association of Science Parks,” 2008.

[4]   J. S. Jauhiainen, K. Ala-R?mi and K. Suorsa, “Multipolis- Teknologian, Osaamisen Ja Kehitt?misen Yhteisty?ver- kosto,” Sis?asiainministeri?n Julkaisuja, Helsinki, 2004.

[5]   A. Halinen and A. Salmi, “Managing the Informal Side of Business Interaction: Personal Contacts in the Critical Phases of Business Relationships,” Proceedings of the 17th IMP Conference, Oslo, Norway, 9-11 September, 2001.

[6]   R. G. Cooper, “The Seven Principles of The Latest Stage-Gate Method Add Up to Streamlined, New-Product Idea-To-Launch Process,” Stage-gate Inc., 2006.

[7]   K. T. Ulrich and S. D. Eppinger, “2 Product Design and Development,” 3rd Edtion, McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 2003.

[8]   S. Ogawa and F. T. Piller, “Reducing the Risks of New Product Development,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2006, pp. 65-71.

[9]   M. Dodgson, D. Gann and A. Salter, “The Management of Technological Innovation—Strategy and Practice,” Oxford University Press, New York, 2008.

[10]   S.-A. Phillip, H.-C. Yeung, “A Place for R&D? The Singapore Science Park,” Urban Studies, Vol. 40. No. 4, 2002, pp. 707-732. doi:10.1080/0042098032000065263

[11]   H. Ylinenp??, “Science Parks, Clusters and Regional Development,” Lule? University of Technology, Sweden, 2001.

[12]   T. Breshanan, A. Gambardella and A. Saxenian, “‘Old Economy’ Inputs for ‘New Economy’ Outcome: Cluster Formation in the New Silicon Valleys,” Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 835-860. doi:10.1093/icc/10.4.835

[13]   A. Smedlund, P. St?hle and L. K?pp?, “V?litt?j?organisaatiot ja Jaettu Johtajuus,” In: M. Koskenlinna, A. Smedlund, P. St?hle, L. K?pp?, M-L. Niinikoski, V. Valovirta, K. Halme, J. Saapunki, and J. Leskinen, V?litt?j?organi-saatiot-Moniottelijat Innovaatiota Edist?m?ss?, Teknologiakatsaus, Tekes, Helsinki, 2005, pp. 19-52.

[14]   J. Howells, “Intermediation and the Role of Intermediaries in Innovation,” Research Policy, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2006, pp. 715-728. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2006.03.005

[15]   R. Coombs, M. Harvey and B. S. Tether, “Analysing Distributed Processes of Provision and Innovation,” Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 12. No. 6, 2003, pp. 1125-1155. doi:10.1093/icc/12.6.1125

[16]   S. Saurio, “Generating Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship: Pre- and Business Incubation in Finnish Polytechnics,” FINPIN-Finnish Polytechnics Incubators Network, H?meenlinna, 2004.

[17]   S. Saurio, “Promoting Entrepreneurship and Business Incubator Operations in the Finnish Polytechnic Environment,” In: S. Saurio, Ed., Generating Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship: Pre- and Business Incubation in Finnish Polytechnics, FINPIN-Finnish Polytechnics Incubators Network, H?meenlinna, 2004, pp. 23-28.

[18]   L. Rothschilt and A. Darr, “Technological Incubators and the Social Construction of Innovation Networks: An Israeli Case Study,” Technovation, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2005, pp. 59-67. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(03)00064-6

[19]   E. von Hippel, “Cooperation between Rivals: Informal Know-How Trading,” Research Policy, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1986, pp. 291-302. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(87)90015-1

[20]   M. Nieminen and E. Kaukonen, “Universities and R&D Networking in a Knowledge-Based Economy, a Glance at Finnish Developments,” Sitra Reports Series 11, Sitra, Helsinki, 2001.

[21]   K. Laursen and A. Salter, “Searching Low and High: What Type of Firms Use Universities as a Source of Innovation?” Research Policy, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2004, pp. 1201-1215. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2004.07.004

[22]   M. Fritsch and R. Lukas, “Who Cooperates on R&D?” Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2001, pp. 297-312. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00115-8

[23]   P. S. Kristensen and A. L. Vinding, “Exchange of Employees, Prototypes and Use of Electronic Media in Product Development Collaboration: Results from Danish Study,” In: Innovative Networks, Co-Operation in National Innovation Systems, OECD, Paris. 2001, pp. 123-142.

[24]   A. Schibany and D. Schartinger, “Interaction between Universities and Enterprises in Austria: An Empirical Analysis at the micro and Sector Levels,” In: Innovative Networks, Co-Operation in National Innovation Systems, OECD, Paris, 2001, pp. 235-252.

[25]   G. A. Moore, “Crossing the Chasm, Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream Customers,” Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2002.

[26]   M. E. Porter, “Kansakuntien Kilpailuetu,” Otava, Keuruu, 1991.

[27]   H.-C. Lai and J. Z. Shyu, “A Comparison of Innovation Capacity at Science Parks across the Taiwan Strait: The Case of Zhangjiang High-Tech Park and Hsinchu Science-Based Park,” Technovation, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2005, pp. 805-813. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2003.11.004

[28]   M. Soekijad and E. Andriessen, “Conditions for Knowledge Sharing in Competitive Alliances,” European Management Journal, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2003, pp. 578-587. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(03)00107-5

[29]   A. K. Agrawal and I. Cockburn, “The Anchor Tenant Hypotheses: Exploring the Role of Large, Local, R&D-Intensive Firms in Regional Innovation System,” International Journal of Industrial Organizations, Vol. 21, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1227-1253.

[30]   R. Narula, “R&D Collaboration by SMEs: New Opportunities and Limitations in the Face of Globalization,” Technovation, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2004, pp. 153-161. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00045-7

[31]   J. McKenzie, “How to Share Knowledge between Companies, Examining Success Factors for inter-Organizational Relationships,” Knowledge Management Review, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2005, pp. 16-19.

[32]   T. Vilkamo and T. Keil, “Technology Partnering in High-Velocity Environments—Lessons from a Case Study,” Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy and International Business, Working Paper Series 2000, Espoo, 2000.

[33]   J. Howells, “The Knowledge Boundaries of the Firm and Sourcing for Innovation,” 13th IAMOT International Conference, Washington, 3rd-7th April 2004.

[34]   I.-S. Fan, S. Russell and R. Lunn, “Supplier Knowledge Exchange in Aerospace Product Engineering,” Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2000, pp. 14-17. doi:10.1108/00022660010308624

[35]   L. J. Bourgeois and K. M. Eisenhardt, “Strategic Decision Processes in High Velocity Environment: Four Cases in the Microcomputer Industry,” Management Science, Vol. 34, No. 7, 1988, pp. 816-835. doi:10.1287/mnsc.34.7.816

[36]   K. M. Eisenhardt, “Politics of Strategic Decision Making in High-Velocity Environments: Toward a Midrange Theory,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1988, pp. 737-770. doi:10.2307/256337

[37]   F. K. Fink, “Problem Based Learning in Engineering Education—A Catalyst for Regional Industrial Development,” World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1-4.

[38]   F. K. Fink, “How Can We Apply the Problem Based Learning Philosophy in Continuing Engineering Education? 6th UICEE Annual Conference on Engineering Education, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 10th-14th February, 2003.

[39]   E. Moesby, “Curriculum Development for Project-Oriented and Problem-Based Learning (POPBL) with Emphasis on Personal Skills And Abilities,” Global Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005, pp. 121-128.

[40]   L. Leydesdorff and H. Etzkowitz, “The Future Location of Research: A Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations II,” EASST Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1998, pp. 1-12.

[41]   H. Etzkowitz and L. Leydesdorff, “The Triple Helix-University-Industry-Government Relations: A Laboratory for Knowledge Based Economy Development,” EASST Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-12.

[42]   D. C. Mowery, N. S. Bhaven, “Universities in National Innovation Systems,” In: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery, R. R. Nelson, Eds., The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pp. 209-239.

[43]   C. Edquist, “Systems of Innovation,” In: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery and R. R. Nelson, Eds., The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pp. 181-208.

[44]   P. Cooke, “Regional Innovation Systems—An Evolutionary Approach,” In: P. Cooke, M. Heidenreich and H.-J. Braczyck, Eds., Regional Innovation System—The Role of Governance in a Globalized World, Routledge, London, 2004, pp. 1-18.

[45]   B.-A. Lundvall and S. Borrás, “The Globalising Learning Economy: Implications for Innovation Policy,” DG XII, Commission of the European Union, 1997.

[46]   H. Etzkowitz, “The Triple Helix of University-Univer- sity-Government Implications for Policy and Evaluation,” Working Paper 2002-11, Institutet f?r Studier av Utbildning och Forskning, Stockholm, 2002.

[47]   F. Malerba, “Sectoral Systems, How and Why Innovation Differs across Sectors,” In: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery and R. R. Nelson, Eds., The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pp. 380-406.

[48]   F. Malerba, “Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Production: Concepts, Analytical Framework and Empirical Evidence,” The Future of Innovation Studies Conference, Eindhoven University of technology, Eindhoven, 22-23 September 2001, p. 4.

[49]   M. S. Granowetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1973, pp. 1360-1380. doi:10.1086/225469

[50]   W. Powell and S. Grodal, “Network of Innovators,” In: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery and R. R. Nelson, Eds., The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pp. 56-85.

[51]   R. S. Burt, “Structural Holes and Good Ideas,” The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 110, No. 2, 2004, pp. 349-399. doi:10.1086/421787

[52]   G. Ahuja, “Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and Innovation: A Longitudinal Study,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2000, pp. 425-456. doi:10.2307/2667105

[53]   D. Halpern, “Social Capital,” Polity Press, Cambridge, 2005.

[54]   R, Landry, N. Amara and M. Lamari, “Social Capital, Innovation and Public Policy,” Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2001, pp. 73-79.

[55]   H. Scarbrough, “Knowledge Management, HRM and the Innovation Process,” International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2003, pp. 501-514. doi:10.1108/01437720310491053

[56]   A. K. Chakrabarti and M. D. Santoro, “Building Social Capital and Learning Environment in University-Industry Relationship,” International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004, pp. 19-36. doi:10.1504/IJLIC.2004.004421

[57]   T. Hellstr?m and U. Malmquist, “Networked Innovation: Developing The AXE110 ‘mini-Exchange’ at Ericsson,” European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2000, pp. 181-189.

[58]   T. Hellstr?m, U. Malmquist and J. Mikaelsson, “Decentralized Knowledge, Managing Knowledge Work In a Software Engineering Firm,” The Journal of High Tech- nology Management Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2001, pp. 25-38. doi:10.1016/S1047-8310(00)00037-7

[59]   M. Sobero, “Structural Contraints, Strategic Interaction and Innovative Processes: Measuring Network Effects in New Product Development Projects,” Journal of Management and Governance, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2000, pp. 239-263. doi:10.1023/A:1026538513141

[60]   O. Arndt and R. Sternberg, “Do Manufacturing Firms Profit from Intraregional Innovation Linkages? An Empirical Study Based Answer,” European Planning Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2000, pp. 465-485. doi:10.1080/713666423

[61]   T. Elfring and W. Huisink, “Network in Entrepreneurship: The Case of High-Technology Firms,” Small Business Economics, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2003, pp. 409-422. doi:10.1023/A:1026180418357

[62]   T. Müller-Prothmann, A. Siegberg and I. Finke, “Inter-Organizational Knowledge Community Building: Sustaining or Overcoming Organizational Boundaries?” Pro- ceedings of I-KNOW Conference, Graz, Austria, 29 June -1 July, 2005, pp. 256-266.

[63]   M. P. Knudsen, “The Relative Importance of Interfirm Relationships and Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development Success,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2007, pp. 117-138. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5885.2007.00238.x

[64]   T. Apilo and T. Taskinen, ”Innovaatioiden Johtaminen,” Research Notes 2320, VTT, Espoo, 2006.

[65]   A. Schibany and W. Polt, “Innovation and Networks: An Introduction to The Theme,” In: Innovation networks, Co-Operation in National Innovation Systems, OECD, Paris, 2001, pp. 7-14.

[66]   D. Littler, F. Leverick and M. Bruce, “Factors Affecting The Process of Collaborative Product Development: A Study of UK Manufacturers of information And Communication Technology Products,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1995, pp. 16-32. doi:10.1016/0737-6782(94)00025-B

[67]   W. Becker and J. Dietz, “R&D Cooperation and Innovation Activities of Firms—Evidence for the German Manufacturing Industry,” Research Policy, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2004, pp. 209-223. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2003.07.003

[68]   Z. Emden, R. J. Calantone and C. Droge, “Collaborating for New Product Development: Selecting the Partner with Maximum Potential to Create Value,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2006, pp. 330-341. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5885.2006.00205.x

[69]   B. Ebersberger and O. Lehtoranta, “Pattern of Innovative Activities among Finnish Firms,” VTT Publications 558, VTT, Espoo, 2005.

[70]   E. von Hippel, “Democratizing Innovation,” The MIT Press, Cambridge, 2005.

[71]   C. Lettl, C. Herstatt and H.-G. Gemünden, “Users as Inventors and Developers of Radical Innovation,” The 20th Annual IMP Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2-4 September 2000.

[72]   E. L. Olson and G. Bakke, “Implementing the Lead User Method in a High Technology Firm: A Longnitudinal Study of Intentions versus Actions,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2001, pp. 388-395. doi:10.1016/S0737-6782(01)00111-4

[73]   F. Wynstra and E. ten Pierick, “Managing Supplier Involvement in New Product Development: A Portfolio Approach,” European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2000, pp. 49-57. doi:10.1016/S0969-7012(99)00035-0

[74]   J. L. Hartley, J. R. Meredith, D. McCutcheon and R. R. Kamath, “Supplier’s Contribution to Product Development: An Explanatory Study,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1997, pp. 258-267. doi:10.1109/17.618077

[75]   K. J. Petersen, R. B. Handfield and G. L. Ragatz, “A Model of Supplier Integration into New Product Devel- opment,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2003, pp. 284-299. doi:10.1111/1540-5885.00028

[76]   A. Tomes, R. Erol and P. Armstrong, “Technological Entrepreneurship, Integrating Technological and Product Innovation,” Technovation, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2000, pp. 115-127. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(99)00116-9

[77]   H. Etzkowitz and L. Leudesdorf, “The Dynamics of Innovation: From National Systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations,” Research Policy, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2000, pp. 109-123. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00055-4

[78]   J. Simonen, “The Effects of R&D Cooperation and Labour Mobility on Innovation,” Ph.D. Thesis, Acta Universitas Ouluensis, University of Oulu, Oulu, 2007.

[79]   D. Nobelius, “Linking Product Development to Applied Research: Transfer Experiences from an Automotive Company,” Technovation, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2004, pp. 321-334. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00073-1

[80]   A. Hoecht and P. Trott, “Innovation Risks of Strategic Outsourcing,” Technovation, Vol. 26, No. 5-6, 2006, pp. 672-681. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2005.02.004

[81]   S. Kumar and T. Snavely, “Outsourcing and Strategic Alliances for Product Development: A Case of Banta Digital Group,” Technovation, Vol. 24, No. 12, 2004, pp. 672-681. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(03)00062-2

[82]   R. K. Perrons and K. Platts, “Outsourcing Strategies for Radical Innovations: Does Industry Clockspeed Make Difference?” Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 16, No. 8, 2005, pp. 842-863.

[83]   K. Blomqvist, P. St?hle, “Building Organisational Trust,” 16th Annual IMP Conference, Bath, UK, 7-9 September, 2000.

[84]   U. Andersson, D. Blankenburg-Holm and M. Johanson, “Moving or Doing? Knowledge Flow, Problem Solving, and Change in Industrial Networks,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2007, pp. 32-40. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.09.010

[85]   P. H. Andersen and P. R. Christensen, “Inter-Partner Learning in Global Supply Chains: Lessons From NOVO Nordisk,” European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2000, pp. 105-116. doi:10.1016/S0969-7012(99)00021-0

[86]   H. Nieminen, “Organizational Receptivity—Understanding the Inter-Organizational Learning Ability,” Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2005, pp. 107-118.

[87]   T. Ritter, I. F. Wilkinson and W. J. Johnston, “Managing in Complex Business Networks,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2004, pp. 175-183. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2003.10.016

[88]   D. M. Lambert, M. S. Cooper and J. D. Pagh, “Supply Chain Management: Implementation Issues and Research Opportunities,” The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1998, pp. 1-19. doi:10.1108/09574099810805807

[89]   D. M. Lambert, “Supply Chain Management,” In: D. M. Lambert, Ed., Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Management Institute, Sarasota, 2006, pp. 1-24.

[90]   H. H?kansson and I. Snehota, “Developing Relationships in Business Networks,” Routledge, London, 1995.

[91]   D. Ford, L.-E. Gadde, H. H?kansson and I. Snehota, “Managing Networks,” 18th IMP Conference, Perth, Australia, 11-13 December 2002.

[92]   S. Denize, K. E. Miller and L. Young, “Information Exchange: An Actor, Activity and Resource Perspective,” 16th Annual IMP Conference, Bath, UK, 6-9 September 2000.

[93]   L. Araujo and S. Kerndrup, “The Division of Labour and Industrial Networks,” 17th Annual IMP Conference, Oslo, Norway, 9-11 September, 2001.

[94]   J. Ojansalo, “Management of Innovation Networks—Two Different Approaches,” The 20th Annual IMP Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2-4 September 2004.

[95]   I. Nonaka and N. Konno, “The Concept of ‘Ba’: Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation,” California Management Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1998, pp. 40-54.

[96]   C. Gray, “Absorptive Capacity, Knowledge Management and Innovation in Entrepreneurial Small Firms,” Inter- national Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2006, pp. 345-360. doi:10.1108/13552550610710144

[97]   M. W. Cohen and D. E. Lewinthal, “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 19, 1990, pp. 128-152. doi:10.2307/2393553

[98]   M. Nieminen and E. Kaukonen, “Universities and R&D Networking in a Knowledge-Based Economy, a Glance at Finnish Developments,” Sitra Reports Series 11, Sitra, Helsinki, 2001.

[99]   P. J. Lane and M. Lubatkin, “Relative Absorptive Capacity and Interorganisational Learning,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 19. No. 5, 1998, pp. 461-477. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199805)19:5<461::AID-SMJ953>3.3.CO;2-C

[100]   C. Gray, “Absorptive Capacity, Knowledge Management and Innovation in Entrepreneurial Small Firms,” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2006, pp. 345-360. doi:10.1108/13552550610710144

[101]   L. Argote, “Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge,” Kuwer Academic Publish- ers, Norwell, 1999.

[102]   G. Fioretti, “A Connectionist Model of The Organizational Learning Curve,” Comput Math Organiz Theor, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1007/s10588-006-9003-6

[103]   M. B. Lieberman, “The Learning Curve and Pricing in the Chemical Processing Industries,” The Grand Journal of Economics, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1984, pp. 213-228. doi:10.2307/2555676

[104]   R. Lubit, “Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Management: The Keys to Sustainable Competitive Advantage,” Or- ganizational Dynamics, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2001, pp. 164-178.

[105]   I. Nonaka, K. Umemote and D. Senoo, “From Information Processing to Knowledge Creation: A Paradigm Shift in Business Management,” Technology in Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1996, pp. 203-218. doi:10.1016/0160-791X(96)00001-2

[106]   E. von Hippel, “Democratizing Innovation,” MIT Press, Cambridge, 2005.

[107]   C. Freeman, “The Economics of Industrial Innovation,” Pinter, London, 1974.

[108]   M. L. Tushman and P. Anderson, “Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1986, pp. 439-465. doi:10.2307/2392832

[109]   C. M. Christensen, “The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail,” Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1997.

[110]   W. J. Abernathy and J. M. Utterback, “Patterns of Industrial Innovation,” Technology Review, Vol. 80, No. 7, 1978, pp. 40-47.

[111]   R. M. Henderson and K. B. Clark, “Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 1. 1990, pp. 9-30. doi:10.2307/2393549

[112]   H. W. Chesbrough, “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology,” Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003.

[113]   H. W. Chesbrough, W. Vanhaverbeke and J. West, “Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006

[114]   J. F. Christensen, M. H. Olesen and J. S. Kj?r, “The Industrial Dynamics of Open Innovation—Evidence From the Transformation of Consumer Electronics,” Research Policy, Vol. 34, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1533-1549. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2005.07.002

[115]   L. Dahlander and D. Gann, “How Open Is Innovation,” In: J. Bessant and T. Venables, Eds., Creating Wealth from Knowledge, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2007, pp. 61-79.

[116]   C. E. Helfat, “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology,” Perspectives-Academy of Management, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, pp. 86. doi:10.5465/AMP.2006.20591014