Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and toroid structure of the deuteron and triton

ABSTRACT

In this paper we model in a new way the nuclei of deuterium and tritium. We consider the nucleons as toroids that rotate at a constant angular velocity around a line perpendicular to their rotation plane and passing through the center of mass of the nuclei. Based on exact analytical formulas obtained by us for the electrostatic interaction between two spheres with arbitrary radii and charges, we obtain that the known binding energy of the deuteron and triton has an electromagnetic nature. We also obtain through these formulas the force of interaction inside these nuclei. Besides that, within the framework of the classical model we use, we calculate the volumes and mass densities of the nucleons. Throughout all that we use the experimentally obtained results for the radii and masses of the nucleons and nuclei under study. Through our toroid model we confirm the main experimental results obtained for the deuteron and triton not only for the binding energy but also for the magnetic moments, spins and stability.

In this paper we model in a new way the nuclei of deuterium and tritium. We consider the nucleons as toroids that rotate at a constant angular velocity around a line perpendicular to their rotation plane and passing through the center of mass of the nuclei. Based on exact analytical formulas obtained by us for the electrostatic interaction between two spheres with arbitrary radii and charges, we obtain that the known binding energy of the deuteron and triton has an electromagnetic nature. We also obtain through these formulas the force of interaction inside these nuclei. Besides that, within the framework of the classical model we use, we calculate the volumes and mass densities of the nucleons. Throughout all that we use the experimentally obtained results for the radii and masses of the nucleons and nuclei under study. Through our toroid model we confirm the main experimental results obtained for the deuteron and triton not only for the binding energy but also for the magnetic moments, spins and stability.

Cite this paper

Kolikov, K. , Ivanov, D. and Krastev, G. (2012) Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and toroid structure of the deuteron and triton.*Natural Science*, **4**, 123-130. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.42018.

Kolikov, K. , Ivanov, D. and Krastev, G. (2012) Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and toroid structure of the deuteron and triton.

References

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[12] Kolikov, K., Ivanov, D. and Krustev, G. (2012) Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and a toroid model of nucleons in atomic nuclei. Natural Science, 4, 47-56. doi:10.4236/ns.2012.41008

[13] Blokhintsev, D. (1983) Basics of quantum mechanics. Nauka (in Russian).

[14] Kolikov, K., Ivanov, D., Krustev, G., Epitropov Y. and Bozhkov, S. (2012) Electrostatic interaction between two conducting spheres. Journal of Electrostatics, 70, 91-96. doi:10.1016/j.elstat.2011.10.008

[15] Feynman, R. (1964) The feynman lectures on physics: Exercises. Addison Wesley Publishing Co., New York.

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[19] Sick, I. (2003) On the rms-radius of the proton. Physics Letters B, 576, 62-67. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.09.092

[20] Hofstadter, R. (1956) Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure. Reviews of Modern Physics, 28, 213. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.28.214

[21] Burcham, W.E. (1963) Nuclear physics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.

[22] Kirscher, J., Griesshammer, H., Shukla, D. and Hofmann, H. (2010) Universal correlations in pionless EFT with the resonating group method: Three and four nucleons. European Physical Journal A, 44, 239-256.

[1] Cook, N. (2006) Models of the atomic nucleus. Springer, Berlin.

[2] Krane, K. (1999) Introductory nuclear physics. Wiley- VCH, New York.

[3] Martin, B. (2008) Nuclear and particle physics. 3rd Edition, Wiley.

[4] Schopper, H., Altarelli, G., Grünewald, M. and Inoue, K. (2008) Elementary particles. Springer, Berlin.

[5] Standard model. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model

[6] University of Tennessee. Standard model. http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/phys250/modules/module%206/standard_model.htm

[7] Fehling, D. () The standard model of particle physics: A lunchbox’s guide. http://www.pha.jhu.edu/~dfehling/

[8] Bergman, D. (2000) The real proton. Foundations of Science, 3, 4.

[9] Toroidal ring model. http://www.enotes.com/topic/Toroidal_ring_model

[10] Toroidal ring model. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toroidal_ring_model

[11] Twain, M. (1995) The undiscovered physics. http://groupkos.com/mtwain/TheProton.pdf.

[12] Kolikov, K., Ivanov, D. and Krustev, G. (2012) Electromagnetic nature of the nuclear forces and a toroid model of nucleons in atomic nuclei. Natural Science, 4, 47-56. doi:10.4236/ns.2012.41008

[13] Blokhintsev, D. (1983) Basics of quantum mechanics. Nauka (in Russian).

[14] Kolikov, K., Ivanov, D., Krustev, G., Epitropov Y. and Bozhkov, S. (2012) Electrostatic interaction between two conducting spheres. Journal of Electrostatics, 70, 91-96. doi:10.1016/j.elstat.2011.10.008

[15] Feynman, R. (1964) The feynman lectures on physics: Exercises. Addison Wesley Publishing Co., New York.

[16] Halliday, D., Resnick, R. and Walker, J. (2011) Fundamentals of physics. 9th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

[17] Gellert, W., K?stner, H. and Neuber, S. (1983) Mathematical encyclopedic dictionary. Science and Art, Sofia, 585 (in Bulgarian).

[18] Mohr, P., Taylor, B. and Newell, D. (2008) CODATA recommended values of the Fundamental Physical constants: 2006. http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.0028.

[19] Sick, I. (2003) On the rms-radius of the proton. Physics Letters B, 576, 62-67. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.09.092

[20] Hofstadter, R. (1956) Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure. Reviews of Modern Physics, 28, 213. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.28.214

[21] Burcham, W.E. (1963) Nuclear physics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.

[22] Kirscher, J., Griesshammer, H., Shukla, D. and Hofmann, H. (2010) Universal correlations in pionless EFT with the resonating group method: Three and four nucleons. European Physical Journal A, 44, 239-256.