ABSTRACT Crystalline manganese carbonate was found to be a versatile green, non corrosive and environmental friendly catalyst for transesterification of vegetable oils. Its use as catalyst in the transesterification process involving methanol and vegetable oils (palm, rapeseed, groundnut, coconut and caster oils) resulted in a conversion rate of 80% - 95% in the production of biodiesel. The chemical composition of the obtained biodiesel was studied by GC-MS analysis and showed the presence of linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids methyl esters to be the major compounds. Manganese carbonate in comparison with other solid catalysts was found to decrease the reaction time and temperature concomitant with an increase of biodiesel yield. Finally, the effect of various parameters including methanol quantity, catalyst amount, reaction time and temperatures on the production of biodiesel was investigated.
Cite this paper
Y. Rao, P. Zubaidha, J. Reddy, D. Kondhare and D. Sushma, "Crystalline Manganese Carbonate a Green Catalyst for Biodiesel Production," Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 14-20. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2012.21003.
 G. Antoline, F. Tinaut, Y. Briceno, V. Castano, C. Perez and A. Ramirez, “Optimition of Biodiesel Production by Sunflower Oil Trnsesterifiction,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 83, No. 2, 2002, pp. 111-114.
 G. Vicente, M. Mrtine and J. Arcil, “Integrted biodiesel Production: A Com-parison of Different Homogeneous Systems,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2004, pp. 297-305. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.08.014
 U. Schuchardt, R. Serchelia and R. M. Vargas, “Trans- esterification of Vegetble Oils: A Review,” Journal of Bra- zilian Chemical Society, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997, pp. 199-210.
 Y. C. Dennis, X. Wu and M. K. H. Leung, “A Review on Biodiesel Production Using Catalyzed Transesterifiction,” Applied Energy, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1083-1095.
 L. F. Razon, “Alter-native Crops for Biodiesel Feedstock,” CAB Reviews: Perspec-tives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Vol. 4, No. 56, 2009, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1079/PAVSNNR20094056
 M. Canakci, “The Po-tential of Restaurant Waste Lipids Biodiesel Feedstock,” Bio-resource Technology, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2007, pp. 183-190.
 B. Freedman, E. H. Pryde and W. F. Kwolek, “Thin Layer Chromatography/FID Analysis of Transesterified Vege- table Oils,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 61, No. 7, 1984, pp. 1638-1643.
 D. Darnoko and M. Cheryan, “Kinetics of Palm Oil Trans- esterification in a Batch Reactor,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 77, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1263- 1267. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0198-y
 K. J. Harrington and C. D. Arcy-Evans, “Transesterifica- tion in Situ of Sunflower Oil,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1985, 314-318. doi:10.1021/i300018a027
 W. Stoffel, F. Chu and E. H. Ahrens, “Analysis of Long Chain Fatty Acids by Acids by Gas-Iquid Chromatogra- phy,” Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1959, pp. 307-308. doi:10.1021/ac60146a047
 B. Freedman, R.O. Butterfield, E. H. Pryde, “Transesteri- fication Kinetics of Soybean Oil,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 63, No. 10, 1986, pp. 1375- 1380. doi:10.1007/BF02679606
 S. Furuta, H. Matsuhshi and K. Arata, “Biodiesel Fuel Production with Solid Superacid Catalysis in Fixed Bed Reactor under Atmos-pheric Pressure,” Catalysis Commu- nication, Vol. 5, No. 12, 2004, pp. 721-723.
 K. Narsimharao, A. Lee and K. J. Wilson, “Catalyst in Production of Biodiesel: A Review,” Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp. 19-30.
 M. M. Gui, K. T. Lee and S. Bhatia, “Flexibility of Edible Oil vs. Non-Edible Oil vs. Waste Oil as Biodiesel Feed- stock,” Energy, Vol. 33, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1646-1653.
 R. C. Schneider, V. Z. Baldissrelli, F. Trombetta, M. Mar- tinelli and E. B. Caramao, “Optimization of Gas Chroma- tographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Fatty Acids in Hydrogenated Castor Oil Obtained by Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 505, No. 2, 2004, pp. 223-226. doi:10.1029/2004JD005394
 H. Fukuda, A. Kondo and H. J. Noda, “Biodiesel Fuel Pro- duction by Transesterification of Oil,” Bioscience Bio- energy, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2001, pp. 405-416.
 P. Bondioli, “The Properties of Fatty Acid Esters by Means of Catalytic Reactions,” Topics in Catalysis, Vol. 27, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 77-81.
 A. Muruge-san, C. Umarani, T. R. Chinnusamy, M. Krish- nan, R. Subra-manian and N. Neduzchezhain, “Production and Analysis of Biodiesel from Non-Edible Oils—A Re- view,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2009, pp. 825-834.
 S. P. Singh and D. Singh, “Biodiesel Production through the Use of Different Sources and Characterization of Oils and Their Esters as the Substitute of Diesels: A Review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2010, pp. 200-216. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.017
 K. F. Peter, R. Ganswindt, H. P. Neuner and E. Weidner, “Alcoholysis of Triglycerols by Heterogeneous Cataly- sis,” European Journal of Lipid Science Technology, Vol. 104, No. 6, 2002 pp. 324-330.
 G. J. Suppes, S. Bockwinkel, S. Lucas, J. B. Botts, M. H. Mason and A. J. Heppert, “Calcium Carbonate Catalyzed Alcoholysis of Fats and Oils,” Journal of American Oil Chemical Society, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2001, pp. 139-145.
 E. Leclereq, A. Finiels and C. Moreau, “Transesterifica- tion of Rapeseed oil in the Presence of Basic Zeolites and Related Solid Catalyst,” Journal of American Oil Chem- ist’s Society, Vol. 78, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1161-1165.
 D. W. Lee, Y. M. Park and K. Y. Lee, “Heterogeneous Base Catalysts for Transesteri-fication in Biodiesel Syn- thesis,” Catalysis Surveys from Asia, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2009, pp. 63-77.