Back
 APE  Vol.2 No.1 , February 2012
Physical Education in Kindergarten Promotes Fundamental Motor Skill Development
Abstract: Skill development is influenced by many factors and, among many, opportunity of practice and appropriate instruction provided by teacher might be considered as key elements but still need to be empirically investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare gross motor development of young children enrolled in physical education, provided by a specialist teacher, and children enrolled in recreational activities, provided by a regular teacher, in kindergarten. Fifty children were divided into two groups: 25 children (age of 5.3 ± 0.3 years) constituted the physical education (PE) group and received activities, once a week, ministered by a physical education teacher; 25 children (age of 5.2 ± 0.4 years) constituted the recreational (RE) group and received activities, also once a week, supervised by a classroom teacher. All these children were evaluated performing the locomotor and object control subtests of Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Performance of both subtests were scored, according to the performance criteria of TGMD-2, by three experimenters, obtaining the raw skill score and the equivalent motor age for each subtest. Results revealed that both children’ groups showed similar raw skill score and equivalent motor age before enrollment in any activities, at the beginning of the year. Differently, after enrolment in the respective activities, PE children showed higher raw skill score and equivalent motor age than RE children. These results demonstrated that regular physical education, composed by structured practice, ministered by a specialist promote gross motor development of children even at young age such as in kindergarten.
Cite this paper: Lemos, A. , Avigo, E. & Barela, J. (2012). Physical Education in Kindergarten Promotes Fundamental Motor Skill Development. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 17-21. doi: 10.4236/ape.2012.21003.
References

[1]   Bonifacci, P. (2004). Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills. Human Movement Science, 23, 157-168. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2004.08.002

[2]   Bornstein, M. H. (1989). Sensitive periods in development: Structural characteristics and causal interpretations. Psychological Review, 105, 179-197.

[3]   Braga, R. K., Krebs, R. J., Valentini, N. C., & Tkac, C. M. (2009). A influência de um programa de interven??o motora no desempenho das habilidades locomotoras de crian?as com idade entre 6 e 7 anos. Revista da Educa??o Física/UEM, 20, 171-181.

[4]   Brauner, L. M., & Valentini, N. C. (2009). Análise do desempenho motor de crian?as participantes de um programa de atividades físicas. Revista da Educa??o Física/UEM, 20, 205-216.

[5]   Clark, J. E. (1994). Motor development. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 3, 245-255.

[6]   Clark, J. E. (2007). On the problem of motor skill development. JOPERD, 78, 39-45.

[7]   Cools, W., Martelaer, K., Samaey, C., & Andrias, C. (2008). Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: A review of seven movement skill assessment tools. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 154-168.

[8]   Gallahue, D. L. (1982). Understanding motor development in children. Boston, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[9]   Gallahue, D. L., & Donnelly, F. C. (2007). Developmental physical education for all children (4th ed.). Urban-Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

[10]   Houwen, S., Hartman, E., Jonker, L., & Visscher, C. (2010). Reliability and validity of the TGMD-2 in primary-school-age children with visual impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 143- 159.

[11]   Lopes, L., Lopes, V. P., & Pereira, B. (2004). Atividade física no recreio escolar: Estudo de interven??o em crian?as dos seis aos 12 anos. Revista Brasileira de Educa??o Física e Esporte, 20, 271-280.

[12]   Niemeijer, A. S., Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M., & Schoemaker, M. M. (2007). Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: A controlled trial. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 406-411. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00406.x

[13]   Pang, A. W.-Y., & Fong, D. T.-P. (2009). Fundamental motor skill proficiency of Hong Kong children aged 6 - 9 years. Research in Sports Medicine, 17, 125-144. doi:10.1080/15438620902897516

[14]   Seefeldt, V., & Haubenstricker, J. (1982). Patterns, phase, or stages: An analytical model for the study of developmental movement. In J. A. S. Kelso, & J. E. Clark (Eds.), The development of movement control and coordination (pp. 309-318). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[15]   Staples, K. L., & Reid, G. (2010). Fundamental movement skills and autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 209-217. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0854-9

[16]   Thelen, E. (1986). Development of coordinated movement: Implications for early human development. In M. G. Wade, & H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control (pp. 106-119). Boston, MA: Martin Nijhoff.

[17]   Thelen, E. (1995). Motor development: A new synthesis. American Psychologist, 50, 79-95. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.50.2.79

[18]   Thelen, E. (2000). Grounded in the world: Developmental origins of the embodied mind. Infancy, 1, 3-28. doi:10.1207/S15327078IN0101_02

[19]   Ulrich, B. D. (1989). Development of stepping patterns in human infants: A dynamical systems perspective. Journal of Motor Behavior, 21, 392-408.

[20]   Ulrich, D. A. (2000). Test of gross motor development-2 (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

[21]   Valentini, N., & Rudisill, M. (2004). Motivacional climate, motor-skill development, and perceived competence: Two studies of developmentally delayed kindergarten children. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23, 216-234.

 
 
Top