ABB  Vol.3 No.1 , February 2012
Moderate anxiety in pregnant women does not compromise gestational immune-endocrine status and outcome, but renders mothers to be susceptible for diseased states development: A preliminary report
ABSTRACT
High anxiety levels during pregnancy commonly lead to clinical complications that affect the mother/child’s prenatal and perinatal health. Such complications are thought to result from combining deficiencies of the endocrine milieu and decreased immune tolerance that support pregnancy. It is yet unclear whether pregnant women subjected to moderate anxiety develop a similar state of endocrine deficits and compromised immune tolerance. Here, we evaluated this issue by monitoring endocrine and immune parameters during pregnancy in a sample of women suffering of moderate anxiety. The health of mothers and children, as well as the outcome of the pregnancies were also revised and recorded. Moderately anxious pregnant women present increments of state anxiety, serum cortisol and progesterone, but not of estradiol, as pregnancy progressed. No variations of leukocyte anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression were found along pregnancy. However, these pregnant women did show an increased frequency of gestational and perinatal complications, conditions that had no major consequences for their health and that of their children at birth. Hence, moderate anxiety renders the mother to be susceptible to develop diseased states during or by the end of pregnancy, while keeping the endocrine milieu and immune tolerance reasonably in place.

Cite this paper
Romo-González, T. , Retureta, B. , Sánchez-Rodríguez, E. , Martínez, A. , Chavarría, A. and Gutiérrez-Ospina, G. (2012) Moderate anxiety in pregnant women does not compromise gestational immune-endocrine status and outcome, but renders mothers to be susceptible for diseased states development: A preliminary report. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 101-106. doi: 10.4236/abb.2012.31015.
References
[1]   Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (1999) Preterm singleton births: United States 1989-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 48, 185-189.

[2]   Senties, M. and Ortiz, G. (1993) Evaluación de los niveles de ansiedad y el estado emocional en mujeres embarazadas de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Psicología y salud Nueva época, 2, 47-54.

[3]   Rodríguez, J. (1995) Psicología social de la salud. Editorial Síntesis, S. A., Madrid.

[4]   Pimentel, B. (2007) Ansiedad, depresión y funcionalidad familiar en embarazo de alto riesgo obstétrico en el hospital materno infantil de la C.N.S, La Paz-Bolivia. Revista Pace?a de Medicina Familiar, 4, 15-19.

[5]   Orr, S.T., Reiter, J.P., Blazer, D.G. and James, S.A. (2007) Maternal prenatal pregnancy-related anxiety and spontaneous preterm birth in Baltimore, Maryland. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 566-570. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3180cac25d

[6]   Teixeira, C., Figueiredo, B., Conde, A., Pacheco, A. and Costa, R. (2009) Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women and men. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119, 142-148. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.03.005

[7]   Ruiz, R.J., Fullerton, J. and Dudley, D.J. (2003) The interrelationship of maternal stress, endocrine factors and inflammation on gestational length. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 58, 415-428. doi:10.1097/01.OGX.0000071160.26072.DE

[8]   Arck, P., Hansen, P., Jericevic, B. M., Piccini, M.P. and Szekeres-Bartho, J. (2007) Progesterone during pregp nancy: endocrine-immune cross talk in mamalian species and the role of stress. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 58, 268-279. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00512.x

[9]   Diego, M., Jones, N., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C. and Gonzalez-Garcia, A. (2006) Maternal psychological distress, prenatal cortisol, and fetal weight. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 747-753. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000238212.21598.7b

[10]   Rini, C.K., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Wadhwa, P.D. and Sandman, C.A. (1999) Psychological adaptation and birth outcomes: The role of personal resources, stress, and sociocultural context in pregnancy. Health Psychology, 18, 333-345. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.18.4.333

[11]   Diario Oficial de la Federación (1995) NOM-007- SSA2-1993.

[12]   Spielberg, C., Gorsuch, R. and Lushene, R. (1968) State Trait Anxiety Inventory: Preliminary test manual form X. Florida State University, Tallahassee.

[13]   Spielberger, C.D. (1983) The state-trait anxiety inventory for adults sampler set manual, test, scoring, key. Mind Garden, Menlo Park.

[14]   Morales, F. and González, G. (1990) Normalización del Instrumento de Ansiedad (IDARE) en Mujeres Embarazadas. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 7, 75-80.

[15]   Carr, B., Parker, C., Madden J., McDonald, P. and Porter, J. (1981) Maternal plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol relationships throughout human pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 139, 416- 422.

[16]   Lustyk, M., Olson, K., Gerrish, W., Holder, A. and Widman, L. (2009) Psychophysiological and neuroendocrine responses to laboratory stressors in women: Implications of menstrual cycle phase and stressor type. Biological Psychology, 83, 84-92. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.11.003

[17]   Matalka, K. and Ali D. (2005) Stress-induced versus preovulatory and pregnancy hormonal levels in modulating cytokine production following whole blood stimulation. Neuroimmunomodulation, 12, 366-374. doi:10.1159/000091130

[18]   Field, T. and Diego, M., (2008) Cortisol: The culprit prenatal stress variable. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118, 1181. doi:10.1080/00207450701820944

[19]   Benyo, D.F., Smarason, A., Redman, C.W., Sims, C., Conrad, K.P. (2001) Expression of inflammatory cytokines in placentas from women with preeclampsia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86, 2505- 2512. doi:10.1210/jc.86.6.2505

[20]   Wilfinger, W.W., Mackey, M. and Chomczynski, P. (1997) Effect of pH and ionic strength on the spectrophotometric assessment of nucleic acid purity. Biotechniques, 22, 474.

[21]   Kleiboeker, S.B. (2003) Applications of competitor RNA in diagnostic reverse transcription-PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 5, 2055-2061. doi:10.1128/JCM.41.5.2055-2061.2003

[22]   Figuero-Ruiz, E., Prieto, I. and Bascones-Martínez, A. (2006). Cambios hormonales asociados al embarazo. Afectación gingivo-periodontal. Avances en Periodoncia, 18, 101-113.

[23]   Arck, P., Hansen, P., Jericevic, B.M., Piccini, M.P. and Szekeres-Bartho, J. (2007).Progesterone During Pregnancy: Endocrine-Immune Cross Talk in Mamalian Species and the Role of Stress. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 58, 268-279. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00512.x

[24]   Chan, J., Rabbitt, E.H., Innes, B.A., Bulmer, J.N., Stewart, P.M., Kilby, M.D. and Hewison, M. (2007). Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in human decidua: a novel role for 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in late gestation. The Journal of Endocrinology, 195, 7-15. doi:10.1677/JOE-07-0289

[25]   Chang, K. and Zhang, L. (2008). Steroid hormones and uterine vascular adaptation to pregnancy. Reproductive Sciences, 15, 336-348. doi:10.1177/1933719108317975

[26]   Gambino, Y.P., Maymó, J.L., Pérez-Pérez, A., Due?as, J.L., Sánchez-Margalet, V., Calvo, J.C. and Varone, C.L. (2010). 17-Beta-estradiol enhances leptin expression in human placental cells through genomic and nongenomic actions. Biology of reproduction, 83, 42-51. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.110.083535

[27]   Rodriguez-Sierra, J.F., Howard, J.L., Pollard, G.T. and Hendricks, S.E. (1984) Effect of ovarian hormones on conflict behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 9, 293-300. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(84)90008-8

[28]   Gallo, M.A. and Smith, S.S. (1993). Progesterone withdrawal decreases latency to and increases duration of electrified prod burial: a possible rat model of PMS anxiety. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 46, 897- 904. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(93)90219-J

[29]   Rodriguez-Sierra, J.F., Howard, J.L., Pollard, G.T. and Hendricks, S.E. (1984) Effect of ovarian hormones on conflict behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 9, 293-300. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(84)90008-8

[30]   Stites, D.P. and Siiteri, P.K. (1983). Steroids as immunosuppressants in pregnancy. Immunological Reviews, 75, 117-138. doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.1983.tb01093.x

 
 
Top