Back
 FNS  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2012
Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of the Pre-Germinated Brown Rice Extract
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of pre-germinated brown rice extract (PGBR ex) with enhanced levels of GABA on proliferation and apoptosis of neuronal SK-N-SH cells line. Firstly, we used HPLC methods to study the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in all rice extracts. We found that the concentration of GABA in the PGBR ex were 3 and 8 times higher than the GABA concentration in non-germinated brown rice (BR ex) and white rice (WR ex) compared with the stan- dard GABA respectively. Next we study the protective effects of brown rice extract by investigating various methods, we found that the effects of dose-dependent study by treated with PGBR ex, BR ex and WR ex at (0 - 4000 μg/ml). The data from MTT assay showed that the higher concentration of all rice extracts were not induced toxicity to SK-N-SH cells. To test the protective effect by study the viability of SK-N-SH cells. These results showed that PGBR ex and BR ex can protect cells by significantly increase cells survival up to 29.3% ± 0.01% and13.4% ± 0.07 % (p < 0.05) but not WR ex comparable with 150 ?M H2O2 alone which caused cells death >56.9% ± 0.02 % (p < 0.05), compared with un- treated cells (control). Next study we test the effect of cells apoptotic by ROS assay and DNA fragmentation. The results showed that PGBR ex were definitely decrease the amount of ROS formation and had a little of DNA ladders comparable with condition that induced by 150 ?M H2O2. Our data indicating that PGBR ex with enhanced levels of GABA effectively inhibit SK-N-SH cells proliferation and apoptosis. These present results suggest that intake of PGBR and BR instead of WR is effective to protect cell proliferation and apoptosis which may be useful nutritional to prevent neuronal cells from neurodegenerative disease.
Cite this paper: R. Soi-ampornkul, S. Junnu, S. Kanyok, S. Liammongkolkul, W. Katanyoo and S. Umpornsirirat, "Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of the Pre-Germinated Brown Rice Extract," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 135-140. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.31020.
References

[1]   C. H. Oh and S. H. Oh, “Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Extracts with Enhanced Levels of GABA on Cancer Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis,” Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2004, pp. 19-23. doi.10.1089/109662004322984653

[2]   S. H. Oh, “Stimulation of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis Activity in Brown Rice by a Chitosan/glutamic Acid Germination Solution and Calcium/Calmodulin,” Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2003, pp. 319-325. doi.10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.3.319

[3]   S. Y. Latifah, N. Armania, T. H. Tze, Y. Azhar, A. H. Nordiana, S. Norazalina, et al., “Germinated Brown Rice (GBR) Reduces the Incidence of Aberrant Crypt Foci with the Involvement of Beta-Catenin and COX-2 in Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Cancer in Rats,” Nutrition Jour- nal, Vol. 9, 2010, pp. 16. doi.10.1186/1475-2891-9-16

[4]   M. E. Gotz, G. Kunig, P. Riederer and M. B. Youdim, “Oxidative Stress: Free Radical Production in Neural Degeneration,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 63, No. 1, 1994, pp. 37-122. doi.10.1016/0163-7258(94)90055-8

[5]   J. M. Mates, C. Perez-Gomez and I. Nunez de Castro, “Antioxidant Enzymes and Human Diseases,” Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 32, No. 8, 1999, pp. 595-603. doi.10.1016/S0009-9120(99)00075-2

[6]   J. H. Weisburger, “Mechanisms of Action of Antioxidants as Exemplified in Vegetables, Tomatoes and Tea,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 37, No. 9-10, 1999, pp. 943-948. doi.10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00086-1

[7]   C. Behl, “Alzheimer’s Disease and Oxidative Stress: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches,” Progress in Neurobiology, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1999, pp. 301-323. doi.10.1016/S0301-0082(98)00055-0

[8]   J. T. Coyle and P. Puttfarcken, “Oxidative Stress, Glutamate, and Neurodegenerative Disorders,” Science, Vol. 262, No. 5134, 1993, pp. 689-695. doi.10.1126/science.7901908

[9]   C. Behl, “Vitamin E Protects Neurons Against Oxidative Cell Death in Vitro More Effectively than 17-Beta Estradiol and Induces the Activity of the Transcription Factor NF-KappaB,” Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol. 107, No. 4, 2000, pp. 393-407. doi.10.1007/s007020070082

[10]   R. Zhang, H. Lu, S. Tian, J. Yin, Q. Chen, L. Ma, et al., “Protective Effects of Pre-Germinated Brown Rice Diet on Low Levels of Pb-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in Developing Rat,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol. 184, No. 3, 2010, pp. 484-491. doi.10.1016/j.cbi.2010.01.043

[11]   B. S. Koo, W. C. Lee, K. H. Chung, J. H. Ko and C. H. Kim, “A Water Extract of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) Rescues PC12 Cell Death Caused by Pyrogallol or Hypoxia/Reoxygenation and Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Injury in PC12 Cells,” Life Science, Vol. 75, No. 19, 2004, pp. 2363-2375. doi.10.1016/j.lfs.2004.07.003

[12]   P. B. Godkar, R. K. Gordon, A. Ravindran and B. P. Doctor, “Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Water Soluble Extracts Protect Against Glutamate Toxicity in Neuronal Cultures From Rat Forebrain,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 93, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 213-219. doi.10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.051

[13]   E. M. A., A. Nomura, K. Koshimuzu, H. Ohigashi, K. Mizuno and T. Taniguchi, “Synthesis of Feruloylmyo-Inositols and Their Inhibitory Effects on Superoxide Anion Generation,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol. 10, 2000, pp. 1439-1442. doi.10.1016/S0960-894X(00)00252-3

[14]   H. I. Ichikawa, B. Xu, Y. Yoshii, M. Nakajima and T. Konishi, “Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Black Rice,” Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2001, pp. 211-218. doi.org/10.1089/10966200152744481

[15]   H. S. Chung and W. S. Woo, “A Quinolone Alkaloid with Antioxidant Activity from the Aleurone Layer of Anthocyanin-pigmented Rice,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 64, No. 12, 2001, pp. 1579-1580. doi.10.1021/np010324g

[16]   S. Toyokuni, T. Itani, Y. Morimitsu, K. Okada, M. Ozeki, S. Kondo, et al., “Protective Effect of Colored Rice over White Rice on Fenton Reaction-Based Renal Lipid Peroxidation in Rats,” Free Radical Research Communicaitions, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2002, pp. 583-592. doi.10.1080/10715760290025960

[17]   J. W. C. Hyun and H. S. Cyanidin, “Cyanidin and Malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heungjinjubyeo Mediate Cytotoxicity Against Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells by Arrest of G(2)/M Phase and Induction of Apoptosis,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, 2004, pp. 2213-2217. doi.10.1021/jf030370h

[18]   C. Z. Hu, W. Ling and D. D. Kitts, “Black Rice (Oryza sati Va L. indica) Pigmented Fraction Suppresses Both Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Chemical and Biological Model Systems,” Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, 2003, pp. 5271-5277. doi.10.1021/jf034466n

[19]   W. Weecharangsan, P. Opanasopit, M. Sukma, T. Ngawhirunpat, U. Sotanaphun and P. Siripong, “Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Extracts from the Fruit Hull of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.),” Medical Principles and Practice, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2006, pp. 281-287. doi.10.1159/000092991

[20]   K. Higashi-Okai, K. Kanbara, K. Amano, A. Hagiwara, C. Sugita, N. Matsumoto, et al., “Potent Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Activity in Aqueous Extract of Japanese Rice Bran—Association with Peroxidase Activity,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 18, No. 8, 2004, pp. 628-633. doi.10.1002/ptr.1576

[21]   H. Wang and J. A. Joseph., “Quantifying Cellular Oxidative Stress by Dichlorofluorescein Assay Using Microplate Reader,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 5-6, 1999, pp. 612-616. doi.10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00107-0

[22]   D. Schubert, C. Behl, R. Lesley, A. Brack, R. Dargusch, Y. Sagara, et al., “Amyloid Peptides are Toxic via a Common Oxidative Mechanism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 92, No. 6, 1995, pp. 1989- 1993. doi.10.1073/pnas.92.6.1989

[23]   J. J. Yan, J. Y. Cho, H. S. Kim, K. L. Kim, J. S. Jung, S. O. Huh, et al., “Protection Against-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity in Vivo with Long-Term Administration of Ferulic Acid,” British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 133, No. 1, 2001, pp. 89-96. doi.10.1038/sj.bjp.0704047

[24]   G. R. Bicknell, R. T. Snowden and G. M. Cohen, “Formation of High Molecular Mass DNA Fragments is a Marker of Apoptosis in the Human Leukaemic Cell Line, U937,” Journal of Cell Science, Vol. 107, 1994, pp. 2483-2489.

[25]   B. C. Scott, O. I. Aruoma, P. J. Evans, C. O’Neill, A. Van der Vliet, C. E. Cross, et al., “Lipoic and Dihydrolipoic Acids as Antioxidants. A Critical Evaluation,” Free Radi- cal Research, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1994, pp. 119-133. doi.10.3109/10715769409147509

[26]   F. Yang, T. K. Basu and B. Ooraikul, “Studies on Germination Conditions and Antioxidant Contents of Wheat Grain,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2001, pp. 319-330. doi.10.1080/09637480120057567

[27]   N. Andarwulan, D. Fardiaz, G. A. Wattimena and K. Shetty, “Antioxidant Activity Associated with Lipid and Phenolic Mobilization during Seed Germination of Pangium Edule Reinw,” Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 8, 1999, pp. 3158-3163. doi.10.1021/jf981287a

[28]   S. Tian, K. Nakamura and H. Kayahara, “Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in White Rice, Brown Rice, and Germinated Brown Rice,” Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 15, 2004, pp. 4808-4813. doi.10.1021/jf049446f

 
 
Top