ABSTRACT Although there has been recognition of the importance of examining the indirect effect of perceived parental ethnic-racial socialization on youths’ psychosocial outcomes, few studies have done so. To date, Tran and Lee’s (2010) study is one of few that has linked ethnic-racial socialization to psychosocial outcomes among Asian Americans, specifically. The purpose of this study was to extend Tran and Lee’s (2010) research in two ways. First, the present study tested a model similar to Tran and Lee’s but replaced their dependent variable, social competence, with self-esteem. Second, the present study tested the model among Asian American emerging adults (i.e., ages 18 to 25), not late adolescents. The present study hypothesized that perceiving more frequent messages of cultural socialization-pluralism from parents would indirectly lead to higher self-esteem via stronger ethnic identity. One-hundred-fourteen self-identified Asian Americans (M age = 21.34 years; 66% female) completed an online survey that included measures of perceived cultural socialization-pluralism, ethnic identity, and self-esteem. Based on model testing via the bootstrap method (Preacher & Hayes, 2008), the hypothesis was supported. The findings of the present study contribute to the discussion of the role that perceived ethnic-racial socialization plays in Asian Americans’ positive development. Further, the present study contributes to the limited research on ethnic- racial socialization among Asian Americans.
Cite this paper
Brown, C. & Ling, W. (2012). Ethnic-Racial Socialization Has an Indirect Effect on Self-Esteem for Asian American Emerging Adults. Psychology, 3, 78-81. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31013.
 Arnett, J. J. (2006). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683
 Cheng, S. H., & Kuo, W. H. (2000). Family socialization of ethnic i- dentity among Chinese American pre-adolescents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 31, 463-484.
 Garcia Coll, C. T., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & Vazquez Garcia, H. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891-1914. doi:10.2307/1131600
 Grusec, J. E., & Kuczynski, L. (1997). Parenting and children’s inter nalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory. New York, NY: Wiley.
 Harrison, A. O., Wilson, M. N., Pine, C. J., Chan, S. Q., & Buriel, R. (1990). Family ecologies of ethnic minority children. Child Development, 61, 347-362. doi:10.2307/1131097
 Hughes, D. (2003). Correlates of African American and Latino parents’ messages to children about ethnicity and race: A comparative study of racial socialization. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 15-33. doi:10.1023/A:1023066418688
 Hughes, D., & Chen, L. (1997). When and what parents tell children about race: An examination of race-related socialization among African American families. Applied Developmental Science, 1, 200-214.
 Hughes, D., & Johnson, D. (2001). Correlates in children’s experiences of parents’ racial socialization behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 981-995. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00981.x
 Nagata, D. K. (1993). Legacy of injustice: Exploring the cross-genera- tional impact of the Japanese American internment. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
 Ou, Y. S., & McAdoo, H. P. (1993). Socialization of Chinese American children. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity (pp. 245-270). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Parke, R. D., & Buriel, R. (1998). Socialization in the family: Ethnic and ecological perspectives. In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) & W. Damon (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. New York, NY: Wiley.
 Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514.
 Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new- scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176. doi:10.1177/074355489272003
 Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891.
 Quintana, S. M., Aboud, F. E., Chao, R. K., Contreras-Grau, J., Cross, W. E., Jr., Hudley, C., & Vietze, D. L. (2006). Race, ethnicity, and culture in child development: Contemporary research and future directions. Child Development, 77, 1129-1141.
 Rivas-Drake, D., Hughes, D., & Way, N. (2009). A preliminary analysis of associations among ethnic-racial socialization, ethnic discrimi- nation, and ethnic identity among urban sixth graders. Journal of Re- search on Adolescence, 19, 558-584.
 Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422-445. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422
 Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1982 (pp. 290-312). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
 Sobel, M. E. (1986). Some new results on indirect effects and their standard errors in covariance structure models. In N. Tuma (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1986 (pp. 159-186). Washington, DC: A- merican Sociological Association.
 Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83-110.
 Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Prince ton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
 Tran, A., & Lee, R. (2010). Perceived ethnic-racial socialization, ethnic identity, and social competence among Asian American late adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 169- 178. doi:10.1037/a0016400
 Uma?a-Taylor, A. J., Bhanot, R., & Shin, N. (2006). Ethnic identity formation during adolescence: The critical role of families. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 390-414. doi:10.1177/0192513X05282960