JCPT  Vol.2 No.1 , January 2012
Determination of A.C. Conductivity of Nano-Composite Perovskite Ba(1- x - y)Sr(x)TiFe(y)O3 Prepared by the Sol-Gel Technique
ABSTRACT
Nano-composite, perovskite Ba(1- x - y)Sr(x)TiFe(y)O3, denoted as (BSTFe) in powder form was derived via sol-gel (SG) method followed by sintering at fixed temperature 750℃ for one hour. The chemical composition, morphology and structure of the powder samples were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD characterization indicates formation of a cubic crystalline phase in the pure BST. A well defined perovskite phase with nano-crystallite sizes equal to about 34 nm was achieved from XRD for B10ST3F sample, while TEM study confirmed the obtained XRD results giving the following crystallite size value about 33.75 nm for the same sample. The dielectric A.C. conductivity was evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency ranging from 42 Hz up to 1 MHz.

Cite this paper
M. Willander, O. Nur, M. Israr, A. Hamad, F. Desouky, M. Salem and I. Battisha, "Determination of A.C. Conductivity of Nano-Composite Perovskite Ba(1- x - y)Sr(x)TiFe(y)O3 Prepared by the Sol-Gel Technique," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.21001.
References
[1]   I. K. Battisha, A. B. Abou Hamad and R. M. Mahani, “Structure and Dielectric Studies of Nano-Composite Fe2O3: BaTiO3 Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Physica B, Vol. 404, No. 16, 2009, pp. 2274-2279. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2009.04.038

[2]   F. Lin and W. Shi, “Ef-fect of Sr Concentration on Microstructure and Magnetic Prop-erties of (Ba1?xSrx) (Ti0.3Fe0.7) O3 ceramics,” Journal of Mag-netism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 322, Bo. 14, 2010, pp. 2081-2085. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2010.03.004

[3]   M. Willander, O. Nur, M. Q. Israr, A. B. Abou Hamad, F. G. Abd El Maksoud, M. A. Salem and I. K. Battisha, submitted for publication in J of phy-sica B, September 2011.

[4]   A. Sundaresan and C. N. R. Rao, “Ferromagnetism as a Universal Feature of Inorganic Nanopar-ticles,” Nano Today, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2009, pp. 96-106. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2008.10.002

[5]   H. I. Hsing, C. S. Hsib, C. C. Huang and S. L. Fu, “Low Temperature Sintering and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 with Glass Addition” Materials Chemistry and Phy- sics, Vol. 113, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 658-663. doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.08.033

[6]   L. B. Kong, T. S. Zhang, J. Ma and F. Boey, “Progress in Synthesis of Ferroelec-tric Ceramic Materials Via High- Energy Mechanochemical Technique” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2008, pp. 207-322. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.001

[7]   M. Roscher, T. Schneller, R. Waser, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech., Vol. 56, 2010, pp. 236.

[8]   Z. Shao, G. Xiong, J. Tong, H. Dong, W. Yang, “Ba Effect in Doped Sr(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ on the Phase Structure and Oxygen Permeation Properties of the Dense Ceramic Mem-branes,” Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 25, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 419-429. doi:10.1016/S1383-5866(01)00071-5

[9]   C. Mao, X. Dong, T. Zeng, H. Chen, F. Cao, Ceramics International, Vol. 34, 2008, pp. 45.

[10]   R. Kavian and A. Saidi, “Sol-Gel Derived BaTiO3 Nano- Powders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 468, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 528-532. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.01.045

[11]   W. Li, Z. Xu, R. Chu, P. Fu, J. Hao, J. Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 482, 2009, pp. 137.

[12]   W. L. Liu, D. Xuea, H. Kanga, C. Liu, “Wet Routes of High Purity BaTiO3 Nanopowders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 440, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 78-83. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.09.023

[13]   B. Fournaud, S. Ros-signol, J. M. Tatibou and S. Thollonb, “Spherical Pellets of Ba-TiO3 and Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 Perovskite- Type Compounds Made by a Sol-Gel Oil Drop Process for Non-Thermal Plasma Applications,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 5, 2009, pp. 2515-2521. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.05.046

[14]   L. B. Kong, T. S. Zhang, J. Ma and F. Boey, “Progress in Synthesis of ferroelec-tric ceramic materials via High- Energy Mechanochemical Technique,” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2008, pp. 207-322. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.001

[15]   X. H. Zuo, X. Y. Deng, Y. Chen, M. Ruan, W. Li, B. Liu, Y. Qu and B. Xu, “A Novel Method for Preparation of Barium Strontium Titanate Nano-powders,” Materials Letters, Vol. 64, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1150-1153. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2010.02.034

[16]   R.M. Mahani, I. K. Battisha, and M. A. Salem and A. B. Abou Hamad, “Structure and Dielectric Behavior of Nano- Structure Ferroelectric BaxSr1?xTiO3 Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 508, No. 2, 2010, pp. 354-358. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.05.060

[17]   W. Li, Z. Xu, R. Chu, P. Fu and J. Hao, “Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Ba(1?x)SrxTiO3 Ceramics,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 499, No. 2, 2010, pp. 255-258. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.03.180

[18]   S. B. Deshpandea, Y. B. Khollamb, S. V. Bhoraskarb, S. K. Dateb, S. R. Sainkara and H. S. Potdara, “Synthesis and Characterization of Micro-wave-Hydrothermally Derived Ba1?xSrxTiO3 Powders,” Mate-rials Letters, Vol. 59, No. 2-3, 2005, pp. 293-296. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2004.10.006

[19]   J. Gong, J. Cheng, W. Zhu, S. Yu, W. Wu and M. Zhongyan, IEEE, Vol. 54, No. 12, 2005, pp. 2579.

[20]   X. Wei, G. Xu, Z. Ren, Y. Wang, G. Shen and G. Han, “Size-Controlled Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals via a Hydrothermal Route,” Materials Letters, Vol. 62, No. 21- 22, 2008, pp. 3666-3669. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2008.04.022

[21]   M. Y. El-Naggar, K. Dayal, D. G. Goodwin and K. Bhattacharya, “Graded Ferroe-lectric Capacitors with Robust Temperature Characteristics,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, 2006, p. 114115. doi:10.1063/1.2369650

[22]   S. U. Adikary and H. L. W. Chan, “Compositionally Gra- ded BaxSr1?xTiO3 Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Applications,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 79, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 157-160. doi:10.1016/S0254-0584(02)00255-9

[23]   H.T. Su, M.J. Lan-caster, F. Huang, F. Wellh¨ ofer, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 24, 2000, pp. 155.

[24]   K.-C. Tsai, W.-F. Wu, C.-G. Chao, J.-T. Lee and S.-W. Shen, “Improving Electrical Properties and Thermal Stability of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Thin Films on Cu(Mg) Bottom Ele- ctrodes,” Japan Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, 2006, pp. 5495-5500. doi:10.1143/JJAP.45.5495

[25]   G. Sub-ramanyam, F. Ahamed and R. Biggers, “A Si MMIC Compati-ble Ferroelectric Varactor Shunt Switch for Microwave Appli-cations,” IEEE Microwave and Wire- less Components Letters, Vol. 15, No. 11, 2005, pp. 739- 741. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.858992

[26]   J. G. Cheng, J. Tang, J. H. Chu and A. J. Zhang, “Pyroelectric Properties in Sol-Gel Derived Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Using a Highly Diluted Precursor Solution,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, No. 7, 2000, p. 1035. doi:10.1063/1.1289038

[27]   L. Radha-piyari, O. P. Thakur and C. Prakash, “Structural and Dielectric Properties of the System Ba1?xSrxFe0.01Ti0.99O3,” Materials Letters, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1824-1829. doi:10.1016/S0167-577X(02)01075-3

[28]   C. L. Fu, C. R. Yang, H. W. Chen, Y. X. Wang and L. Y. Hu, “Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of Bax Sr1?xTiO3 ceramics,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 119, No. 2, 2005, pp. 185-188. doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2005.02.056

[29]   N.C. Pramanik, N. Ani-sha, P.A. Abraham, N. Rani Panicker, J. Alloys Compd., Vol. 476, 2009, No. 524.

[30]   N. H. Chan and D. M. Smyth, “De-fect Chemistry of BaTiO3” Journal of Electrochemical Society, Vol. 123, No. 10, 1976, pp. 1584-1585. doi:10.1149/1.2132644

[31]   T. Matsuoka, Y. Matsuo, H. Sa-saki and S. Hayakawa, “PTCR Behavior of BaTiO3 with Nb2O5 and MnO2 Additives,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 55, No. 2, 1972, p. 108. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1972.tb11223.x

 
 
Top